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NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology is one of the best learning guides that students can use for their exam preparation. It contains important questions with comprehensive answers. In addition, all solutions are presented in an easy-to-understand format. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology is a very important study material and one of the most important factors which contribute a lot to scoring high marks in the Class 11 exam. Also, Class 11 solutions play a very important role in competitive exams like JEE and NEET.

These solutions have been designed by our team of professionals to help the students to grasp the deep concepts with minimum stress and maximum interest. These solutions explain all the important concepts like biological classification, animal and plant kingdom, morphology, structural organization, biomolecules, cell division, transport in plants, nutrition, photosynthesis in the easiest way. Download NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology PDF for free and access the material offline as well.

In most cases, students read a concept and try to remember it. They do not even understand the subject properly. This is where NCERT Solutions for Class Biology comes to light – the most accurate answers are folded into a method that makes these solutions easy to understand and easy to remember. The study material provided here has been prepared by a team of highly skilled teachers.

Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions List of Chapters Available in Free PDF

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1) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World is provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. This chapter explains basic concepts like diversity in the living world, taxonomic categories, taxonomical aids, etc. The living world varies from place to place. Millions of animals, insects, and many more have been discovered and countless of them remain to be discovered. Taxonomy studies of different types of plants and animals are beneficial for agriculture, forestry, industry, and also for our general knowledge.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 1 The Living World in free pdf. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • What is living?
  • Biodiversity
  • Need for Classification
  • Three domains of life
  • Taxonomy and systematics
  • Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy
  • Binomial nomenclature
  • Tools for study of taxonomy
  • Museums
  • Zoological parks
  • Herbaria
  • Botanical gardens
  • Keys for identification

Some important points of ‘The Living World’ are as follows-

  • A species is a natural population of individuals or a group of populations that are identical in all necessary (morphological and reproductive) characters to reproduce independently and produce fertile offspring.
  • A genus is a group of related species that are similar to each other in some correlated traits. All species in the genus are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. For example – Lion, Tiger, Leopard are closely related species and they are placed in the same genus i.e. Panther
  • Family is a taxonomic category that includes one or more related genera. All species in a family share some common characteristics or correlated traits.
  • An order is a category that includes one or more related families.
  • A class is made up of one or more related orders.
  • The term phylum is used for animals while the term division is used for plants.
  • A union/division is made up of one or more classes.
  • The Kingdom is the highest in the taxonomic category. For example – All plants are included in the kingdom ‘Plantae’ while all the animals belong to the kingdom ‘Animalalia’.
  • An herbarium is a place where specimens of dried plants are kept on sheets and arranged systematically according to a widely accepted system of classification. The herbarium sheet has a label that provides its information.
  • Botanical gardens are specialized gardens that contain a wide collection of living plants for reference purposes.
  • Plants in botanical gardens are grown for identification purposes and plants are labeled indicating their scientific name and family.
  • Some famous botanical gardens-

    1. Royal Botanical Garden, Kew (London)
    2. Indian Botanical Garden, Kolkata 
    3. National Botanical Garden, Lucknow 
2) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. In this chapter, we will study the characteristics of the kingdoms Monera, Protista, and Fungi of the Whitaker system of classification. Kingdom Plantae and Animalia, also known as the plant and animal kingdoms respectively, You will also learn about Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia, Viruses, Viroids, and Lichens.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Five kingdom Classification
  • Salient features and Classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups
  • Lichens
  • Viruses
  • Viroids

Some important points in ‘Biological Classification’ are as follows-

  • State Two: Plantae Animalia
  • Three Kingdoms: Plantae Protista Animalia
  • Five Kingdoms: Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
  • A two-kingdom system of classification was proposed by Linnaeus (father of taxonomy), in which organisms are classified based on the presence and absence of a cell wall.
  • Three kingdom systems were proposed by Haeckel who distinguished unicellular animals, algae, and fungi based on their lack of tissue differentiation. As a result of this, the new kingdom ‘Protista’ was introduced.
  • Five kingdom systems were proposed by R.H.Whittaker, who developed a phylogenetic classification that divided all organisms into five kingdoms.
3) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 Plant Kingdom

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. In this chapter, we will study in detail the classification of Kingdom Plantae or ‘Plant Kingdom’. In addition, you will learn a few more concepts like Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycle, and Alternation of Generations.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 3 the Plant Kingdom in free pdf. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Algae
  • Bryophyta
  • Reproduction in Bryophytes
  • Pteridophyta
  • Classification
  • Numerical Taxonomy
  • Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  • Angiosperms
  • Classification up to Class, characteristic features and examples

Some important points of ‘Plant Kingdom’ are as follows-

  • Plantae is a taxonomic group that includes land plants and green algae.
  • Vegetative reproduction in algae occurs by fission.
  • Algae are divided into the following classes-
    1. Chlorophycease
    2. Phaeophycease
    3. Rhodophycease
  • Asexual reproduction is done by flagellated zoospores in Chlorophyceae, biflagelated zoospores in Phaeophycease, and non-motile spores in Rhodophyceae.
  • Sexual reproduction in algae is done by dioecious, anisogamous, or oogamous in Chlorophyceae and Phaeophycease.
4) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. When we look around us, we see different animals with different structures and forms. With more than a million species of different organisms having been described so far, taxonomy has become a need for research. The taxonomy also helps to provide systematically arranged status to newly discovered species. It also teaches other subjects such as the basis of classification, classification of animals, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Salient features and Classification of animals
  • Non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to Class level

Some important points of ‘Animal Kingdom’ are as follows-

  • Animals that contain the third germ layer of the developing embryo—the mesoderm in addition to the ectoderm and endoderm—are called triploblastic. For example- Platyhelminthes, Chordates.
  • The incomplete digestive system has one opening whereas the complete digestive system has two openings i.e. mouth and anus.
  • In an open circulatory system, blood is pumped out of the heart, and cells and tissues are bathed directly in it.
  • Millions of animal species have been discovered and, therefore, it becomes more necessary to classify them to provide systematic status.
  • Animals are classified based on the arrangement of cells, symmetry of the body, nature of coelom, digestive pattern, circulatory and reproductive system.
  • In a closed circulatory system, blood circulates through arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  • The coelom is the body cavity that is lined by mesoderm and animals which have coelom are called coelomate. For example- Annelida, Chordates, and Mollusca.
5) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. This chapter contains detailed and easily understandable explanations of the possible variations in different parts, which occur as adaptations of plants to their environment, e.g. Adaptation of various habitats for protection, climbing, storage. It also provides an accurate and reliable explanation of topics like root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed, semi-technical description of a specific flowering plant, description of some important families, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants Free PDF Download. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Morphology and modifications Morphology of different parts of flowering plants root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed.
  • Description of the families Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Liliaceae

Some important points in ‘Morphology of flowering plants’ are as follows-

  • Knowledge of morphology is essential for the identification of plants.
  • The morphology of flowering plants gives information about the range of variations found in species.
  • Morphology is the branch of biological science that deals with the study of the form, shape, color, structure, and relative position of the different parts of an organism.
  • Occurs in all flowering plants
    1. roots, 
    2. stem, 
    3. leaves, 
    4. flower,
    5. fruits 
  • The underground part of the flowering plant forms the root system while the upper part forms the shoot system.
  • Simple leaves are those leaves that have a single or undivided septum. Example- Mango, Guava, etc.
  • Phyllotaxy is the pattern of arrangement of leaves on a stem or branch.
  • An alternate type of phyllotaxy – one leaf is produced at each node, as in roses in China.
  • The opposite type of phyllotaxy – A pair of leaves emerge from each node opposite to each other like in guava.
  • Agile type of phyllotaxy – more than two leaves emerge at one node and form a whorl like in Alstonia.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. This chapter explains the internal structure and functional organization of higher plants. Anatomy can be defined as the study of the internal structure of plants. Cells are the basic unit of plants and are organized into tissues and in turn, tissues are organized into different parts of the plant. In angiosperms monocots and dicots are physically different. The internal structures also show adaptation to different environments. It covers topics like The Tissues, The Tissue System, Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants, Secondary Growth, and more.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems in dicots and monocots.
  • Secondary growth

Some important points in ‘Anatomy of Flowering Plants’ are as follows-

  • Meristematic Tissue – Simple tissue composed of a group of identical and immature cells that can divide to form new cells.
  • Apical meristem – meristems at the tips of roots and shoots.
  • There are two types of Primary xylem-
    1. Protoxylem 
    2. Metaxylem
  • In plants, this type of primary xylem is called endarch with protoxylem in the center and metaxylem towards the periphery.
  • In roots, this type of primary xylem is called exarch with protoxylem at the periphery and metaxylem towards the center.
  • Albuminous cells and sieve cells in gymnosperms lack sieve tubes and companion cells.
  • The outermost layer of the dicot root is the epidermis which contains the unicellular root hairs.
  • The cortex consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells.
  • The cambial ring becomes activated and begins to cut new cells, both internally and externally.
  • The cells intersecting the medulla mature into the secondary xylem.
  • Cells cut at the periphery mature into secondary phloem.
  • Secondary growth occurs in the stems and roots of gymnosperms.
  • There is no secondary growth in monocot.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. In the previous lessons, we learned about both unicellular and multicellular organisms in the animal kingdom. In unicellular organisms, all functions such as digestion, respiration, and reproduction are performed by a single cell. In the complex body of multicellular animals, the same basic functions are performed in an organized manner by different groups of cells. All complex animals have only four basic types of tissue. These tissues organize in specific places to form organs – such as the stomach, lungs, heart, and kidneys.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 7 Structural Organization in Animals in PDF Download Free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Animal tissues
  • Morphology, Anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect-cockroach

Some of the important points of ‘Structural Organization in Animals’ are as follows-

  • Simple epithelium is made up of a single layer of cells. They act as the lining of body cavities, ducts, and ducts.
  • The compound epithelium consists of two or more layers of cells. It has a protective function.
  • The squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells with irregular borders.
  • Squamous epithelium is present in the lining of blood vessels and the alveoli of the lungs.
  • Cuboidal epithelium is composed of single-layered cube-like cells. They are found in the glandular ducts and tubular part of the renal nephron for absorption and secretion.
  • The columnar epithelium is made up of long and thin cells whose nuclei are located at the base.
  • The glandular epithelium is columnar and cuboidal epithelium specialized for secretion.
  • The glandular epithelium can be unicellular as in the goblet cells of the alimentary canal or multicellular in the salivary gland.
  • Loose connective tissues include areolar tissue and adipose tissue.
  • Typical connective tissues are cartilage, bones, and blood.
  • Blood is a liquid connective tissue composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Blood helps in the transport of various substances throughout the body.
  • Pheretima and Lumbricus are common Indian earthworms.
  • Cockroaches are insects that destroy food by contaminating it with foul-smelling excreta.
  • Fertilization is external and takes place in water.
8) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell : The Unit of Life

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. When we look at our surroundings, we see both living and non-living things. There is a question that – “What is it that makes an organism alive?” or “What is there that an inanimate object does not have that a living thing possesses?” The answer to this question lies in the existence of the fundamental unit of life – the cell in all living organisms. Every organism is made up of cells. Some of them are composed of a single cell and are called unicellular organisms.

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 Cell: The Unit of Life Download free pdf. The list of topics from this chapter include-

  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life
  • Structure of prokaryotic cells
  • Structure of eukaryotic cells
  • Plant cell
  • Animal cell
  • Cell envelope
  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Cell organelles – structure and function
  • Endomembrane system
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi bodies
  • Lysosomes
  • Vacuoles
  • Mitochondria
  • Ribosomes
  • Plastids
  • Microbodies
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
  • Centrioles
  • Nucleus

Some important points in ‘Cell : The Unit of Life’ are as follows-

  • Cytology is the study of the form, structure, and structure of the cell.
  • The cell is said to be the structural and functional unit of life.
  • A single cell performs all the essential functions of life in unicellular organisms such as amoeba, paramecium, yeast, and bacteria.
  • Different types of tissues perform different functions and there is a division of labor among them.
  • Anton von Leeuwenhoek first described a living cell but later Robert Brown discovered the nucleus.
  • Mathias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann (1938) proposed the cell theory which was later revised by Rudolf Virchow (1855).
9) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 is provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. This chapter covers concepts of biomacromolecules, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, the structure of proteins, nature of bond linking monomers in polymers, dynamic state of body components – the concept of metabolism, metabolic basis for survival, living states, enzymes, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 9 Biomolecules in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Chemical constituents of living cells
  • Biomolecules
  • Structure and function of proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic acids
  • Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action

Some important points in ‘Biomolecules’ are as follows-

  • Chemicals (or molecules) present in living organisms are known as biomolecules.
  • Biomolecules are classified into two types- inorganic and organic.
  • Inorganic biomolecules include minerals, gases, and water.
  • Organic biomolecules include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins.
  • Aldehydes, ketones, and aromatic compounds are classified as chemical forms.
  • Amino acids, nucleotides, and fatty acids can be classified as biochemical forms.
  • Macromolecules are formed by the polymerization of subunits called monomers. [exception – lipids]
  • Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar that contain various monosaccharides as building blocks.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. This chapter provides a detailed description of the cell cycle, M phase, the importance of mitosis, meiosis, the importance of meiosis, etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 10 Cell Cycle and Cell Division Free Download PDF. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Cell cycle
  • Mitosis and their significance
  • Meiosis and their significance

Some important points in ‘Cell Cycle and Cell Division’ are as follows-

  • The cell cycle is the sequence of events by which a cell copies its genome, synthesizes other components of the cells, and eventually divides into two daughter cells.
  • Synthesis of DNA occurs at a specific stage of cell division while the distribution of chromosomes in cells occurs in a complex chain of events during cell division.
  • During the synthesis phase, the amount of DNA per cell doubles as DNA replication or synthesis occurs.
  • Proteins are synthesized in preparation for mitosis during the G2 phase.
  • Some cells of adult animals sometimes do not divide or cannot divide.
  • Mitosis in animals occurs only in somatic diploid cells.
  • In plants, mitosis is observed in both haploid and diploid cells.
  • The division of the cytoplasm of the cell into two daughter cells is followed by karyokinesis which is called cytokinesis.
  • The cell cycle is the sequence of events by which a cell copies its genome, synthesizes other components of the cells, and eventually divides into two daughter cells.
  • Synthesis of DNA occurs at a specific stage of cell division while the distribution of chromosomes in cells occurs in a complex chain of events during cell division.
  • During the synthesis phase, the amount of DNA per cell doubles as DNA replication or synthesis occurs.
  • Proteins are synthesized in preparation for mitosis during the G2 phase.
  • Some cells of adult animals sometimes do not divide or cannot divide.
  • Mitosis in animals occurs only in somatic diploid cells.
  • In plants, mitosis is observed in both haploid and diploid cells.
  • The division of the cytoplasm of the cell into two daughter cells is followed by karyokinesis which is called cytokinesis.
11) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. This chapter provides you an in-depth understanding of concepts about means of transport, plant-water relationship, long-distance transport of water, transpiration, absorption, and transport of mineral nutrients, phloem, transport flow from source to sink, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Movement of water, gases and nutrients
  • Cell to cell transport
  • Diffusion
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport
  • Plant-water relations
  • Imbibition
  • Water potential
  • Osmosis
  • Plasmolysis
  • Long-distance transport of water
  • Absorption
  • Apoplast
  • Symplast

Some important points in ‘Transport in Plants’ are as follows-

  • Transfer through mass flow is the long-distance transport that occurs through the vascular system, xylem, and phloem.
  • In the case of water, the direction of transfer is one-way, and in mineral and organic solutes, it is multidimensional.
  • Unlike hydrophilic solutes, lipid-soluble particles readily pass through cell membranes.
  • Movable carrier proteins are called pumps in active transport.
  • Water is essential for all bodily functions of plants because it provides a medium for most substances to dissolve in it.
  • The protoplasm of cells consists of dissolved and suspended water along with various molecules.
  • The contraction of the cytoplasm of the cell away from the cell wall under the influence of a hypertonic solution is called plasmolysis.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 are provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. This chapter is about inorganic plant nutrition, where you will learn about the methods of identifying the essential elements for plant growth and development as well as the criteria to establish the essential elements. You will also study the function of essential substances, their major deficiency symptoms, and the absorption mechanism of all essential elements. This chapter also introduces the importance and mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 12 Mineral Nutrition in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Essential minerals
  • Macro and micronutrients and their role
  • Deficiency symptoms
  • Mineral toxicity
  • Elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition
  • Nitrogen Metabolism
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Biological nitrogen fixation

Some important points in ‘Mineral Nutrition’ are as follows-

  • Hydroponics methods is used for commercial production of vegetables like tomato and cucumber.
  • Macronutrients are present in plants tissues in larger quantity while micronutrients (or trace nutrients) are required in very small quantity.
  • Nitrogen- required by plants in greatest amount, it is absorbed by plants as NO2, NO3 and NH4+ . It is one of the major constituent of proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins.
  • Phosphorus- Absorbed by plants from soil in the form of phosphate ions. It is the constituent of cell membrane. All nucleic acids and nucleotides require phosphorus.
  • Potassium is absorbed as potassium ions (K+). 
  • Calcium is absorbed by plants from soil in form of Calcium ions (Ca2+). 
  • Magnesium is absorbed by plants in form of Mg2+ ions.
  • Sulphur is obtained by plants in form of sulphate (SO42-).
  • Iron is obtained in the form of ferric iron (Fe3+). 
  • Manganese is absorbed in form of Mn2+ ions.
  • Zinc is obtained as Zn2+ ions. 
  • Copper is absorbed as cupric ions(Cu2+). 
  • Boron is absorbed as BO33- or B4O72- ions.
  • Chlorine is absorbed in form of Cl ions. 
13) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 is provided here for the students to understand the chapter better. All living beings including humans depend on plants for their food. Green plants perform ‘photosynthesis’, a physicochemical process that requires light energy to produce the synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is important for two reasons, first that it forms the basis of all known food chains in the world, and second that it is also responsible for the production of oxygen by green plants. This chapter explains the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and the various reactions that convert light energy into chemical energy.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 13 Photosynthesis in Higher Plants in PDF format for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition
  • Site of photosynthesis
  • Pigments involved in photosynthesis
  • Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
  • Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation
  • Chemiosmotic hypothesis
  • Photorespiration
  • C3 and C4 pathways
  • Factors affecting photosynthesis

Some important points in ‘Photosynthesis in Higher Plants’ are as follows-

  • In 1770 Joseph Priestley showed the essential role of air in the growth of green plants. He discovered oxygen gas in 1774.
  • In 1854, Julius von Sachs discovered that the green part of plants produces glucose which is stored as starch.
  • W.Engelmann (1843–1909) discovered the effect of different wavelengths of light on photosynthesis (action spectrum).
  • The light reaction is the reaction in which light energy is absorbed by grains for the synthesis of ATP and NADPH.
  • The dark reaction is a light-independent process in which carbon dioxide and water molecules from sugar molecules. It occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.
  • RuBP Carboxylase – RuBisCO
  • Reduction – This is the chain of reaction that leads to the formation of glucose.
  • The generation of RuBP molecules for the continuation of the cycle is known as regeneration and the whole process requires one molecule of ATP.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. This chapter describes cellular respiration, or the mechanism of the breakdown of food within the cell to release energy, and the trapping of this energy for synthesis ATP. This chapter also explains topics such as glycolysis, respiratory balance sheet, fermentation, aerobic respiration, amphibian pathway, and respiratory quotient.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 14 Respiration in Plants as PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Cellular respiration
  • Glycolysis
  • Fermentation
  • TCA cycle
  • Electron transport system
  • Energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated
  • Amphibolic pathways
  • Respiratory quotient

Some important points in ‘Respiration in Plants’ are as follows-

  • Living organisms require energy for all activities such as absorption, movement, reproduction, and breathing.
  • The breakdown of complex molecules to generate energy occurs in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
  • The process of breaking down foods within the cell to release energy for the synthesis of ATP is called cellular respiration.
  • Energy is released from the breaking of C–C bonds of complex compounds in cells through oxidation. The compounds which get oxidized are called respiratory substrates.
  • ATP is called the energy currency of cells because the energy released during oxidation is not used directly but is used in the synthesis of ATP which breaks down when energy is needed.
  • Oxygen is required for the process of respiration. Oxygen in plants is taken in through stomata, vascular, and root follicles.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. This chapter is about Growth Differential, Differential, and Redefinition, Development, Plant Growth Regulators, Photoperiodism, Vernalization, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development Free PDF Download. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Seed germination
  • Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate and conditions of growth
  • Differentiation – Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation
  • Sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell
  • Growth regulators
  • Auxin
  • Gibberellin
  • Cytokinin
  • Ethylene
  • ABA
  • Seed dormancy
  • Photoperiodism and Vernalisation

Some important points in ‘Plant Growth and Development’ are as folows-

  • Growth is a permanent increase in the dry weight, size, mass, or volume of a cell, organ, or organism.
  • Growth in plants occurs by cell division. Therefore, it is a quantitative phenomenon that can be measured concerning time.
  • Plant growth is generally erratic due to the potential for unlimited growth throughout life.
  • The open form of growth – Plant growth in which new cells are always added to the plant body due to the meristem.
  • The primary growth and elongation of the plant body along the axis is possible due to the root apical meristem and the shoot apical meristem.
  • Intercalary meristem produces buds and new branches in plants.
  • The increase in growth per unit time is called the growth rate. It can be arithmetic or geometric.
  • Arithmetic growth is found in the root and shoots elongation.
  • The cells produced by the apical meristem become specialized to perform a specific function and this function of maturation is called differentiation. Whereas surrender occurs when living differentiated cells that have lost the ability to divide can regain the ability to divide.
  • Evolution is the sequence of events occurring in the life history of a cell, organ, or organism. It includes seed germination, growth, differentiation, maturation, flowering, seed formation, and senescence.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 is given here to help students learn and solve problems in a better way. This chapter throws light upon the concepts of the alimentary canal and digestive glands, the role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones, peristalsis, digestive absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption in free pdf. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Alimentary canal and digestive glands
  • Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
  • Peristalsis
  • Digestion absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
  • Calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
  • Egestion
  • Nutritional and digestive disorders
  • PEM
  • Indigestion
  • Constipation
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • Diarrhoea

Some important points in ‘Digestion and Absorption’ are as follows-

  • The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm.

                                                                                                           

  • The wall of the alimentary canal from the Oesophagus to the rectum consists of four layers-
    1. Serosa
    2. Muscularis
    3. Submucosa
    4. Mucosa
  • The alimentary canal starts from the front mouth and opens backward through the anus and consists of the following parts-
    1. Mouth
    2. Pharynx
    3. Stomach
    4. Small intestine
    5. Large intestine
  • Disorder of Digestive System-
    1. Jaundice
    2. Vomiting
    3. Diarrhoea
    4. Constipation
    5. Indigestion

 

17) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. Some of the major concepts discussed in this chapter are respiratory organs in animals, respiratory system in humans, the system of breathing and its regulation in humans, exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 17 Breathing and Exchange of Gases in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Respiratory organs in animals
  • Respiratory system in humans
  • Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans
  • Exchange of gases
  • Transport of gases and regulation of respiration
  • Respiratory volume
  • Disorders related to respiration
  • Asthma
  • Emphysema
  • Occupational respiratory disorders

Some important points in ‘Breathing and Exchange of Gases’ are as follows-

  • The process of exchange of O2 from the atmosphere with CO2 produced by the cell is called breathing. It occurs in two stages of inspiration and expiration. 
  • During inspiration, air enters the lungs from the atmosphere.
  • During exhalation, air moves out of the lungs.
  • The human respiratory system consists of nostrils, pharynx, larynx, bronchi, and a pair of bronchioles.
  • The nasal chamber opens into the pharynx which leads to the larynx.
  • The larynx contains the voice box (or soundbox) which helps in the production of sound.
  • Each bronchiole ends in alveoli which is an irregular walled, vascular sac-like structure.
  • Disorder of Respiratory System
    1. Asthma
    2. Emphysema
    3. Occupational Respiratory Disorders
    4. Pneumonia
18) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. These solutions for class 11 chapter 18 body fluids and circulation are reliable and easy to understand. These include topics like the structure of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood, structure, and function of lymph, human circulatory system, the structure of human heart and blood vessels, cardiac cycle, cardiac output, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 18 Body Fluids and Circulation in free pdf. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Composition of blood
  • Blood groups
  • Coagulation of blood
  • Composition of lymph and its function
  • Human circulatory system
  • Structure of the human heart and blood vessels
  • Cardiac cycle
  • Cardiac output
  • ECG
  • Double circulation
  • Regulation of cardiac activity
  • Disorders of the circulatory system
  • Hypertension
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Angina pectoris
  • Heart failure

Some important points in ‘Body Fluids and Circulation’ are as follows-

  • Body fluids are the means of transporting nutrients, oxygen, and other important substances in the body.
  • Blood is the most commonly used body fluid in most higher organisms.
  • Lymph transports certain substances such as proteins and fats.
  • Blood is a fluid connective tissue composed of a fluid matrix, plasma, and blood corpuscles.
  • Blood makes up about 30–35% of extracellular fluid and is slightly alkaline with a pH of 7.4.
  • The formed elements are composed of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
  • WBC neutrophils – most abundant
  • WBC Basophils – Least Abundant
  • Monocytes and neutrophils are phagocytic cells that destroy foreign organisms.
  • A person’s plasma contains two antibodies produced in response to antigens (antigen A and antigen B).
  • During the flow of blood through the capillaries, some water-soluble substances are expelled into the space between the cells of the tissues. The fluid that comes out is called lymph (interstitial fluid or tissue fluid).
  • Lymph is similar to blood but contains less blood protein, less calcium, and higher concentrations of phosphorus and glucose.
  • Dual circulation is the flow of the same blood through the heart twice – once in the oxygenated form and the other in the deoxygenated form.
19) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 Excretory Products and their Elimination

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. This chapter covers topics such as the human excretory system, urine formation, function of tubules, mechanism of filtration concentration, regulation of kidney function, collection, the role of other organs in excretion, disorders of the excretory system, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 19 Excretion Products and Their Elimination in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Modes of excretion
  • Ammonotelism
  • Ureotelism
  • Uricotelism
  • Human excretory system -Structure and function
  • Urine formation and Osmoregulation
  • Regulation of kidney function
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • Atrial natriuretic factor
  • ADH
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Role of other organs in excretion
  • Disorders of the excretory system
  • Uremia
  • Renal failure
  • Renal calculi
  • Nephritis
  • Dialysis and artificial kidney
  • Kidney transplant

Some important points in ‘Excretory Products and their Elimination’ are as follows-

  • Excretion is the elimination of metabolic waste products from the animal body to regulate the composition of body fluids and tissues.
  • Human waste products include ammonia, uric acid, urea, carbon dioxide, and ions.
  • Ammonia is the most toxic while uric acid is the least toxic.
  • The process of removing ammonia is called ammonotelism.
  • Organisms that excrete ammonia are called ammonotelic. For example – bony fishes, aquatic amphibians, and insects.
  • Organisms such as mammals and terrestrial amphibians release urea as a nitrogenous waste and are called ureotelic.
  • Organisms such as reptiles, birds, and land snails excrete uric acid and are called uricotelic.
  • The human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a bladder, and a urethra.
  • Different types of Tubules

    1. Proximal Convoluted Tubules (PCT)
    2. Henle’s Loop
    3. Distal Convoluted Tubules (DCT) 
    4. Collecting Duct
20) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 are provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. The chapter covers topics like types of movement, ciliary, flagellar, muscular, skeletal muscle, contractile proteins, and muscle contraction, skeletal system, and its functions, joints, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 20 Locomotion and Movement in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Types of movement
  • Ciliary
  • Flagellar
  • Muscular
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction
  • Skeletal system and its functions
  • Joints
  • Disorders of muscular and skeletal systems
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Tetany
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Gout

Some important points in ‘Locomotion and Movement’ are as follows-

  • Red fibers are also known as aerobic muscles.
  • Red fibers contain myoglobin which contains large amounts of mitochondria that store large amounts of oxygen in them.
  • White fibers are muscle fibers that have a low amount of myoglobin.
  • The skeletal system is the framework of bones and cartilage.
  • The human skeletal system consists of 206 bones and some cartilage.
  • The middle ear consists of three bones – the malleus, incus, and stapes which are collectively called the ear ossicles.
  • Fibrous joints do not allow any movement. This type of joint is present in the flattened skull bones to form the cranium.
  • Cartilaginous joints are those joints in which bones are joined together with the help of cartilage present in the vertebrae. This type of joint allows limited movements.
  • Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System
    1. Myasthenia gravis
    2. Muscular Dystrophy
    3. Osteoporosis 
    4. Arthritis
    5. Gout
    6. Tetany
21) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 is provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Coordination can be defined as the process through which two or more organs interact and complement each other’s functions. This chapter covers detailed concepts about neurons and nerves, the nervous system in humans, the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, visceral nervous system, origin and conduction of nerve impulse, reflex action, etc.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 21 Neural Control and Coordination in free pdf. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Neuron and nerves
  • Nervous system in humans
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Visceral nervous system
  • Generation and conduction of nerve impulse
  • Reflex action
  • Sensory perception
  • Sense organs
  • Elementary structure and functions of eye and ear

Some important points in ‘Neural Control and Coordination’ are as follows-

  • The process through which two or more organs interact and complement each other’s functions is called coordination.
  • The nervous system provides an organized network of point-to-point connections for quick coordination while the endocrine system provides chemical integration through hormones.
  • The nervous system of animals can detect, receive and transmit various stimuli through specialized cells called neurons.
  • In Hydra, the nervous system is made up of a network of neurons.
  • In insects, the nervous system consists of a brain and several ganglia.
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is the site for information processing and control. This includes the brain and spinal cord.
  • Neurons are of three types based on the number of axons and dendrites-
    1. Multipolar
    2. Bipolar
    3. Unipolar
22) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and integration

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 are structured here to help the students score high in the examination. This chapter includes a detailed explanation of topics like endocrine glands and hormones, human endocrine system, hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, etc. This chapter plays a very important role in building the foundation of higher studies. These solutions provide you with the most accurate and reliable answers. If a student will go through these solutions thoroughly then he/she will be able to answer most of the questions in this chapter most easily and appropriately.

Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration in PDF for free. The list of topics in this chapter includes-

  • Endocrine glands and hormones
  • Human endocrine system
  • Hypothalamus
  • Pituitary
  • Pineal
  • Thyroid
  • Parathyroid
  • Adrenal
  • Pancreas
  • Gonads
  • Mechanism of hormone action
  • Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
  • Hypo and hyperactivity and related disorders
  • Dwarfism
  • Acromegaly
  • Cretinism
  • Goiter
  • Exophthalmic goitre
  • Diabetes
  • Addison’s disease

Some important points in ‘Chemical coordination and integration’ are as follows-

  • Endocrine glands are called ductless glands because they release their secretions directly into the blood which is then carried to specific target organs.
  • Chemicals called hormones are secreted by the endocrine glands.
  • Non-nutritive chemicals that act as intercellular messengers are called hormones and are produced in trace amounts.
  • MSH acts on melanocytes and thus, regulates skin pigmentation.
  • The thyroid gland is made up of two lobes on either side of the trachea that is attached to the isthmus.
  • The thymus is located on the dorsal part of the heart and the aorta.
  • The thymus promotes the production of antibodies to provide humoral immunity.
  • The testis serves dual functions, that is, it serves not only as of the primary sex organ but also as an endocrine gland.
  • Leydig cells (or interstitial cells) produce androgens (mainly testosterone) that control the maturation of primary sex organs and spermatogenesis.
  • Each pair of ovaries produces two groups of steroid hormones called estrogen and progesterone.
  • The growing ovarian follicles synthesize and secrete estrogen.

Benefits of Class 11 NCERT Biology Solutions

  • Solving these NCERT solutions will help the students to clear all their doubts with the help of the material.
  • Students who are preparing for their upcoming exams are advised to practice these NCERT solutions regularly to get better marks in their exams.
  • While studying in CBSE board schools, students always get confused while deciding the right study material so that you can take the help of NCERT Solutions.
  • For CBSE students, NCERT solutions are the best option as it covers the entire CBSE syllabus for class 11 Biology.
  • Students must refer to these NCERT solutions before their exam as these solutions will only help to clear the difficult concepts by explaining them.
  • These Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions focus on the basics to help the students with the concepts.
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology not only gives valuable education to the students but also helps them to upgrade their skills.
  • These NCERT solutions contain a comprehensive step-by-step description of all the exercises given in NCERT textbooks using proper explanations, solved examples, etc.

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