NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry are designed to help you solve all your complex problems and guide you to score good marks in your examination. Additionally, these solutions can prove to be a great support to the students in their preparation for Class 11 CBSE Exams. Proper chapter-wise solutions help the students to get a stronghold on the complex concepts easily.
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry is provided here for free in the form of a PDF. These solutions are designed by subject experts to develop a deeper and conceptual understanding of the students. The concepts covered in the Class 11 Chemistry syllabus play a very important role in the success of youth in competitive exams like NEET and IIT-JEE. Hence, students are advised to go through the chapter-wise PDF of Chemistry Solutions to get a higher rank in various competitive exams. Students can download these chapters from the link given on this page.
These solutions for class 11 chemistry are prepared in the most simple and easily understandable language with a precise format. Preparing the subject from these PDFs can help the students to score excellently. Download the PDF for free so that you can access these solutions offline as well.
Class 11 Chapter List NCERT Solutions Chemistry Free PDF
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1) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
“Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry” is the first chapter of the class 11 chemistry syllabus. This chapter gives fine details about the basic concepts of chemistry that will lay the foundation for higher education such as the importance of chemistry, atomic mass, and molecular mass. Some basic laws and principles in chemistry such as Dalton’s atomic theory, Avogadro’s law, and the law of conservation of mass are also described in this chapter.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 1 ‘Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry’: –
- Numerical problems in calculating the molecular weight of compounds
- Numerical problems in calculating mass percent and concentration
- Problems on empirical and molecular formulae
- Problems on molarity and molality
Some important points in ‘Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry’ are as follows –
- Relative atomic mass = mass of an atom of the element / (1/12) x mass of an atom of carbon (C-12)
- Number of gram molecules = W(g) / gram molecular mass
- Number of Gram Atoms = W(g) / Gram Atomic Mass (Gam)
- Avogadro’s number, NA = 6.022 X 1023
- Mass of one atom of element = gram atomic mass / NA
- classification of matter-
(A) Physical classification
(B) Chemical classification
- Inorganic compounds are compounds that are derived from non-living sources such as rocks and minerals. Some examples are common salt, marble, gypsum, washing soda, etc.
- Organic compounds are the compounds that are present in plants and animals. Carbon is found in all organic compounds as their essential constituent. For example, carbohydrates, proteins, oils, fats, etc.
2) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom
“Structure of Atoms” is Chapter 2 of NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. Topics covered in this chapter include subatomic particles, Thomson’s atomic model, Rutherford’s atomic model, Bohr’s model, and the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 from the link given by the Study tutee. Following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 ‘Structure of Atoms’: –
- Basic calculations regarding subatomic particles (protons, electrons, and neutrons).
- Numericals based on the relationship between wavelength and frequency.
- Numericals based on calculating the energy associated with electromagnetic radiation.
- Electron transitions to different shells.
- Writing electron configurations.
- Questions related to quantum numbers and their combinations (for electrons)
Some important points of ‘Structure of Atom’ are as follows –
- Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom or number of electrons in a neutral atom
- Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
- Number of neutrons = mass number (A) – atomic number (Z)
- Speed of light = product of frequency and wavelength of light
c = vλ
- According to Planck’s Quantum Theory
3) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
The NCERT book on “Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties” is Chapter 3 in the Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. This chapter is considered one of the most essential chapters as it covers the concepts which are a very important part of the CBSE syllabus for classes 11 and 12 (CBSE), JEE, and NEET.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 ‘Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties’: –
- Genesis of periodic classification
- Modern periodic law and the present form of the periodic table
- Nomenclatures of elements with atomic number greater than 100
- Electronic configurations of elements and the periodic table
- The s-block, p-block, d-block and f-block elements
- Metals, Non-metals and Metalloids
- Periodic trends in properties of elements
- Trends in physical properties
- Trends in chemical properties
- Trends in chemical reactivity
Some important points in ‘Classification of Elements’ are as follows –
- Groups – The long form of the periodic table also has vertical rows called groups. There is a total of 18 groups in the periodic table. Unlike Mendeleev’s periodic table, each group is an independent group.
- Features of groups:
(i) All the elements present in a group have same general electronic configuration of the atoms.
(ii) The elements in a group are separated by definite gaps of atomic numbers (2, 8, 8,18, 18,32).
(iii) The atomic sizes of the elements in group increase down the group due to increase the number of shells.
(iv) The physical properties of the elements such as m.p., b.p. density, solubility etc., follow a systematic pattern.
(v) The elements in each group have generally similar chemical properties.
- Periodic – Horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods. The long form of the periodic table consists of all seven periods.
- Features of periods:
(i) In all the elements present in a period, the electrons are filled in the same valence shell.
(ii) The atomic sizes generally decrease from left to right.
- General electronic configuration of s-Block Elements: ns1-2
- General electronic configuration of p-Block Elements: ns2np1-6
- Characteristics of s-block elements :-
(i) All the elements are soft metals.
(ii) They have low melting and boiling points.
(iii) They are highly reactive.
(iv) Most of them impart colours to the flame.
(v) They generally form ionic compounds.
(vi) They are good conductors of heat and electricity.
4) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
“Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure” is Chapter 4 of the CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. This chapter explains some of the major and important topics of class 11 chemistry (such as modern theory on hybridization and chemical bonding).
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 from the link given by the Study tutee. Following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 ‘Chemical Bonding and Molecular Bonding’: –
- VSEPR theory
- Lewis structures
- Valence bond theory
- The polar character of covalent bonds
- The concept of hybridization
- The molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules
- Hydrogen bonding
- Drawing Lewis dot symbols for atoms, molecules, and polyatomic ions
- Questions on bond parameters
- Expressing resonance with the help of Lewis structures
- Questions related to dipole moment, bond polarity, and polar covalent bonds
- Questions on hybridization
- Questions on VBT, MOT and the VSEPR theory
Some important points in ‘Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure’ are as follows –
- The force that holds the different atoms in a molecule together is called a chemical bond.
- The octet law – Atoms of different elements participate in chemical combinations to complete their octet or obtain noble gas configurations.
- Valence electron – It is the outermost shell electron that takes part in a chemical combination.
- When the bond is formed between two or more atoms by mutual contribution and sharing of electrons, it is known as a covalent bond.
- If the combining atoms are the same then the covalent molecules are called iso-atoms and if they are different then the covalent molecules are called hetero-atomic molecules.
- Depending on the type of overlapping, covalent bonds are of two types, known as sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds.
- Lattice energy of an ionic compound depends upon following factors:
- Size of the ions: Smaller the size, greater will be the lattice energy.
- Charge on the ions: Greater the magnitude of charge, greater the inter-ionic attraction and hence higher the lattice energy.
- Size of the ions: Smaller the size, greater will be the lattice energy.
5) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 5 States of Matter
“States of Matter” is Chapter 5 of the NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. This chapter covers various basic concepts related to intermolecular forces and their effects on the physical state of any substance. It explains some of the finer details and deeper concepts related to the liquid and gaseous states of matter in the easiest way possible.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 5 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 5 ‘States of Matter’: –
- Numerical problems based on Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lusscac’s law, and Avogadro’s law.
- Numerical problems on calculating partial pressure.
- Questions on critical temperature and pressure.
Some important points of ‘state of matter’ is as follows –
- Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction and repulsion which are permanent dipole moments between interacting particles.
- This interaction is stronger than the London forces but weaker than the ion–ion interaction because it involves only partial charges.
- Ion-induced dipole interactions are those types of interactions in which the permanent dipole of a polar molecule induces a dipole on an electrically neutral molecule by distorting its electronic cloud. The interaction energy is proportional to 1/r6 where r is the distance between the two molecules.
- A gas that does not obey the ideal gas behavior under all conditions of temperature and pressure is called a real gas.
- Boyle’s law: P1V1 = P2V2 (at constant T)
- Charles’ law: V1/T1 = V2/T2 (at constant P)
- Avogadro’s law: V = kn (at constant T and P)
- Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT
- Combined gas equation: P1V1 / T1 = P2V2 / T2
- Dalton’s law of partial pressures: PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 +⋯
- Partial pressure in terms of mole fraction, Pi = xi Ptotal
- Ven der Waals equation: (P+an2/V2)(V−nb) = nRT
- Compressibility factor, Z = PV / RT (for 1 mole of gas)
6) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics
“Thermodynamics” is Chapter 6 of the NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. Thermodynamics is a branch of science that focuses on the relationship between heat and other forms of energy. The part of the universe where the observations are made is called the system and the part of the universe around the system is called the system in which there is no system. Based on the exchange of energy and matter, there are three types of thermodynamic systems: closed systems, open systems, and isolated systems.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 ‘Thermodynamics’: –
- Thermal equilibrium
- Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
- Heat, internal energy and work
- First law of thermodynamics
- Specific heat capacity
- Thermodynamic state variables and the equation of state
- Thermodynamic processes
- Heat engines
- Refrigerators and heat pumps
- The second law of thermodynamics
- Reversible and irreversible processes
- Carnot Engine
Some important points in ‘Thermodynamics’ are as follows –
- ΔU = qv ; qv – Heat exchange at constant volume
- ΔH = qp ; qp – Heat exchange at constant pressure
- Enthalpy, H=U + pV
- Heat Capacity, C = qΔTC = qΔT
- Specific heat capacity, Cs = qm ΔT
- Molar heat capacity, Cn = qnΔT
- First law of thermodynamics: ΔU=q+W
- Relation between ΔH and ΔU
- ΔH = ΔU + pΔV or
- ΔH = ΔU + (Δn) RT
7) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 Equilibrium
The NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus is “Equilibrium” Chapter 7. Various essential concepts such as equilibrium constant, buffer solution, and common-ion effect are explained in depth in this chapter. Detailed explanations have been provided in easily understandable language to help students learn and understand the key points related to chemical equilibrium.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 7 ‘Equilibrium’: –
- Solid-liquid Equilibrium
- Equilibrium In Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium
- Law Of Chemical Equilibrium And Equilibrium Constant
- Homogeneous Equilibria
- Heterogeneous Equilibria
- Applications Of Equilibrium Constants
- Ionic Equilibrium In Solution
- Acids, Bases And Salts
- Ionization Of Acids And Bases
- Buffer Solutions
- Solubility Equilibria Of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Some important points of ‘Equilibrium’ are as follows –
- Henry’s Law – The solubility of a gas in a liquid at a given temperature is governed by Henry’s law. It states that the mass of a gas dissolved in a given mass of solvent at a given temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas above the surface of the solvent.
- Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Like equilibrium in physical systems, this can also be achieved in a chemical process that involves reversible chemical reactions carried out in a closed container.
- Equilibrium in Homogeneous System – When in a system with reversible reaction, the reactants and products are in the same phase, the system is said to be a homogeneous system.
- Law of chemical equilibrium – At a constant temperature, the rate of a chemical reaction is directly proportional to the product of the molar concentrations of the reactants, with a power equal to the corresponding stoichiometric coefficient represented by the balanced chemical equation. Let’s consider the reaction.
- Le Chatelier’s Principle – If a system under equilibrium is subject to a change in temperature, pressure, or concentration, the equilibrium shifts in a way that minimizes or opposes the effects of the change.
- Effect of change of concentration – When the concentration of a reactant or product changes to an equilibrium state in the reaction, the equilibrium structure changes so that the effect becomes minimum.
8) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 8 Redox Reactions
The NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus contains Chapter 8 “Redox Reactions”. This chapter is one of the most important chapters in the CBSE Class 11 Chemistry syllabus. The topics given in this chapter are also a part of JEE and NEET syllabus.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 8 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 8 ‘Redox Reaction’: –
- Classical Idea Of Redox Reactions – Oxidation And Reduction Reactions
- Redox Reactions In Terms Of Electron Transfer Reactions
- Oxidation Number
- Redox Reactions And Electrode Processes
Some important points in ‘Redox’ are as follows –
- Oxidation is defined as the addition of an oxygen/electronegative element to a substance or the removal of a hydrogen/electropositive element from a substance.
- Reduction is defined as the removal of oxygen/electronegative elements from a substance or the addition of hydrogen or electropositive element to a substance.
- Oxidizing agent: acceptor of electrons
- Reducing agent: donor of electrons
- When zinc rod is dipped in copper sulphate solution redox reaction begins hence, zinc is oxidised to Zn2+ ions and Cu2+ ions are reduced to metal.
- Redox reactions are those reactions in which oxidation and reduction take place simultaneously, it is called a redox reaction.
- An electrochemical cell is a device in which an indirect redox reaction occurs and electrical energy is obtained from the reduction of energy.
- According to electronic concept, every redox reaction consists of two steps known as half reactions.
(i) Oxidation reaction: Half reactions that involve loss of electrons are called oxidation reactions.
(ii) Reduction reaction: Half reactions that involve gain of electrons are called reduction reactions.
9) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen
“Hydrogen” is the ninth chapter in the NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 Hydrogen covers all the essential topics with well-explained solutions, aimed at helping students understand the concepts in a better way.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 9 ‘Hydrogen’: –
- Position Of Hydrogen In The Periodic Table
- Dihydrogen, H2
- Preparation Of Dihydrogen, H2
- Properties Of Dihydrogen
- Water Ex
- Hydrogen Peroxide (H202)
- Heavy Water, D20
- Dihydrogen as a Fuel
Some important points in ‘Hydrogen’ are as follows –
- Position of hydrogen in periodic table is not justified because it resembles both alkali metals as well as halogens.
- Hydrogen and alkali metals both shows +1 oxidation state.
- Hydrogen as well as other alkali metals acts as reducing agents.
- Hydrogen and Alkali metals have affinity for electronegative element. For example – Na2O, NaCl, H20, HCl.
- Vapour density of a gas = (molar mass of gas) / (molar mass of H2)
- Molecular weight = 2×(Vapour Density)
- Volume strength of H2O2 = Molarity×11.2 = Normality×5.6
10) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 The s-Block Elements
“S-Block Elements” is Chapter 10 of the NCERT Book Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. This chapter explains group 1 alkali metals and group 2 alkaline earth metals, elements of s-block, their physical properties, and chemical properties, general characteristics of compounds of alkaline earth metals, some important compounds of calcium, heterogeneous properties of lithium. Beryllium behavior. You should study NCERT questions, as solving those questions will help them to assess themselves.
The students studying in class 11 are advised to go through the chapters of class 11 properly as the chapters taught in class 11 are the basics of the chapters taught in class 11.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 from the link given by the Study tutee. Following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 10 ‘S-Block Elements’: –
- Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals
- General Characteristics Of The Compounds Of The Alkali Metals
- Anomalous Properties Of Lithium
- Some Important Compounds Of Sodium
- Biological Importance Of Sodium And Potassium
- Group 2 Elements: Alkaline Earth Metals
- General Characteristics Of Compounds Of The Alkaline Earth Metals
- Anomalous Behaviour Of Beryllium
- Some Important Compounds Of Calcium
- Biological Importance Of Magnesium And Calcium
Some important points in ‘The S-Block Elements’ are as follows –
- Electronic Configuration of Group 1 Elements i.e. Alkali Metals – ns1
- These elements are called alkali metals because they readily dissolve in water to form soluble hydroxides, which are highly alkaline.
- The atomic and ionic radii of alkali metals move down the group, that is, their size increases from Li to Cs.
- Alkali metals form monovalent cations by losing one valence electron. Thus, the cation radius is less than the radius of the parent atom.
- The ionization enthalpies of the alkali metals are generally low and decrease down the group from Li to Cs. Since alkali metals possess large atomic sizes as a result of which the valence s-electron (ns1) can be easly removed. These values decrease down the group because of decrease in the magnitude of the force of attraction with the nucleus on account of increased atomic radii and screening effect.
- Hydration Enthalpy – Smaller the size of the ion, the greater is its tendency to hydrate, hence the greater the hydration enthalpy.
- The hydration enthalpy of alkali metal ions decreases with an increase in ionic size.
- Li+> Na+ > K+ > Rb+ > Cs+
- General Electronic Configuration of s-Block Elements
- For alkali metals (noble gas) ns1
- For alkaline earth metals [noble gas] ns2
- For alkali metals (noble gas) ns1
11) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements
“P-Block Elements” is Chapter XI of the NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. The p-block elements are between group 13 and group 18 in the periodic table.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 from the link given by the Study tutee. Following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 ‘P-Block Elements’: –
- Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family
- Important Trends And Anomalous Properties Of Boron
- Some Important Compounds Of Boron
- Uses Of Boron And Aluminium And Their Compounds
- Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family
- Important Trends And Anomalous Behaviour Of Carbon
- Allotropes Of Carbon
- Some Important Compounds Of Carbon And Silicon
Some important points in ‘P-Block Elements’ are as follows –
- Outer Electronic Configuration of p-block elements: ns2np1
- The atomic and ionic radii of group 13 elements are smaller than the corresponding elements of alkali and alkaline earth metals. This is because as we move from left to right in the period, the effective nuclear charge increases, and the outer electrons are pulled more strongly towards the nucleus. This reduces the atomic size.
- Going down the group, both atomic and ionic radii are expected to increase due to the addition of a new electron shell with each subsequent element.
- The atomic radius of Ga is less than that of Al due to the presence of poor shedding 10d-electrons in gallium.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles & Techniques
“Organic Chemistry – Some basic principles and Techniques” is Chapter XII in the NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. Class 11 students who want to give their best for the upcoming class 11 final exams and competitive exams need to get accustomed to the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 12.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 12 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 12 ‘Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques’: –
- General Introduction
- Tetravalence Of Carbon: Shapes Of Organic Compounds
- Structural Representations Of Organic Compounds
- Complete, Condensed And Bond-line Structural Formulas
- Three-dimensional Representation Of Organic Molecules
- Classification Of Organic Compounds
- Nomenclature Of Organic Compounds
- The IUPAC System Of Nomenclature
- Iupac Nomenclature Of Alkanes
- Nomenclature Of Organic Compounds Having Functional Group(S)
- Nomenclature Of Substituted Benzene Compounds
- Fundamental Concepts In Organic Reaction Mechanism
- Methods Of Purification Of Organic Compounds
- Quantitative Analysis
Some important points of ‘Organic Chemistry Basic Principles and Techniques’ are as follows –
- Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
- The electromeric effect (e-effect) refers to the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound when an electrophile e+ (a reagent) comes into contact with a double or triple bond with two electrons. Has been completed. Thereby the bonds are completely transferred to one atom or the other.
- Functional group an atom or group of atoms linked in a specific way that determines the chemical properties of an organic compound. Examples are the hydroxyl group (-OH), the aldehyde group (-CHO), and the carboxylic acid group (-COOH).
- A covalent bond can undergo fission in two ways :-
- By Homolytic Fission or Homolysis
- By Heterolytic Fission or Heterolysis
- By Homolytic Fission or Homolysis
- In organic or carbon compounds, s and p orbitals are involved in hybridisation. This leads to y three types of hybridisation which are
- sp3(in alkanes) – Tetrahedral in shape
- sp2(in alkenes) – Planar structure
- sp(in alkynes) – Linear molecule
13) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons
“Hydrocarbons” in Chapter 13 of the NCERT Book for Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons is one of the important chapters in Organic Chemistry. CBSE class 11 hydrocarbon alkanes, preparation of alkanes from unsaturated hydrocarbons, from alkyl halides, from carboxylic acids, explains the physical and chemical properties of alkanes. Deep concepts related to alkanes in hydrocarbons, the nomenclature of alkanes, isomers, preparation of alkanes using alkanes, etc.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 from the link given by the Study tutee. Following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 ‘Hydrocarbons’:-
- Aromatic Hydrocarbon
- Carcinogenicity And Toxicity
Some important points in ‘Hydrocarbon’ are as follows –
- Cyclic compounds in which the ring atom contains carbon and some other element (for example, N, S, or O) are called heterocyclic compounds.
- Cyclic compounds that contain only carbon atoms are called alicyclic or carbocyclic compounds.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons – benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds.
- Alkanes are hydrocarbons that have a carbon-carbon double bond (C = C) in their molecule.
- Structural isomerism – ethene and propane have no structural isomers, but butane has three structures
14) NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 Environmental Chemistry
“Environmental Chemistry” is the fourteenth chapter in the NCERT Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus. Environmental Chemistry NCERT Book is one of the most important chapters of Class 11 Chemistry. This chapter covers topics like atmospheric pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, and causes of soil pollution. In addition, students will also learn about strategies to control environmental pollution such as waste disposal, use of pesticides to reduce soil pollution.
Download a free PDF of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 from the link given by the Study tutee. The following are the topics of Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 14 ‘Environmental Chemistry’: –
- Environmental Pollution
- Atmospheric Pollution
- Water Pollution
- Soil Pollution
- Industrial Waste
- Strategies To Control Environmental Pollution
- Green Chemistry
Some important points in ‘Environmental Chemistry’ are as follows –
- Environmental Chemistry – This is the branch of science that deals with the chemical changes that take place in the environment. It includes our surroundings like air, water, soil, forest, etc.
- Environmental Pollution – It is the effect of unwanted changes in our surroundings which have harmful effects on plants, animals, and humans.
- Pollutant – A substance, which causes pollution, is known as a pollutant. Pollutants can be solid, liquid, or gaseous substances. Present in high concentrations, it can be generated due to human activities or natural events.
- The troposphere extends up to an altitude of about 10 km above sea level. It consists of air, water vapor, clouds, etc. Pollution in this area is due to some toxic gases, smoke fumes, smog, etc.
- The stratosphere extends from 10 km to 50 km above sea level. Ozone and some other gaseous substances present in this region are responsible for the pollution.
- Tropical pollution is caused by the presence of undesirable gaseous particles such as oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, hydrocarbons as well as solid particles such as dust, haze, fumes, fumes, etc.
- Oxides of Sulfur – These are produced when coal containing sulfur is burned.
Benefits of Class 11 NCERT Chemistry Solutions
- Solving these NCERT solutions will help the students to clear all their doubts with the help of the material.
- Students who are preparing for their upcoming exams are advised to practice these NCERT solutions regularly to get better marks in their exams.
- While studying in CBSE board schools, students always get confused while deciding the right study material so that you can take the help of NCERT Solutions.
- For CBSE students, NCERT solutions are the best option as it covers the entire CBSE syllabus for Class 11 Chemistry.
- Students must refer to these NCERT solutions before their exam as these solutions will only help to clear the difficult concepts by explaining them.
- These Class 11 Chemistry NCERT Solutions focus on the basics to help the students with the concepts.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry not only gives important education to the students but also helps them to upgrade their skills.
- These NCERT solutions contain a comprehensive step-by-step description of all the exercises given in NCERT textbooks using proper explanations, solved examples, etc.
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