NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology helps students to learn the concepts of Biology (Botany + Zoology). Experts have specially designed these solutions as per the latest pattern prescribed by the CBSE Board. Here, in Study tutee, we have provided biology diagrams with detailed theory. NCERT solutions in the form of PDF format are provided free of cost to all the users of Study tutee for online learning.
The topics covered in the class 12 biology syllabus are important in competitive exams. These NCERT solutions will help you to score high in your board exams as well as competitive exams like NEET, AIIMS, etc. These NCERT solutions help the students to clear all their doubts and understand the chapters in a less complicated manner. Hence, we have compiled these Biology NCERT Solutions in a pattern where students will be able to understand and memorize important topics easily.
Biology is a natural science that studies life and organisms including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physical systems, growth, and development. Despite the complexity of science, some unifying concepts consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Science is given importance by the society because application of scientific knowledge helps in fulfilling many basic needs of human beings and improving the standard of living. Cancer treatment and clean energy are two typical examples of its use.
NCERT Solutions for Biology has been carefully designed by our team of instructors to provide the students with the right way to solve questions in the exam. To collaborate with you, we are here providing the most important and well-established NCERT Solutions for Class 12. These solutions for Biology are effortless to understand and help you to recognize all the fundamental concepts in a better way. Here, at Study tutee, students are provided chapter-wise and exercise-based solutions from all the topics in the NCERT Class 12 Biology Book.
A-List of Chapters Provided in Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions Free PDF.
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1) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction is a biological process of continuation of a species in which adult individuals give birth to identical offspring. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms for free.
Chapter 1 These NCERT Solutions for Reproduction in Organisms are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The list of topics of the chapter ‘Reproduction in Organisms’ is given below: –
- Asexual Reproduction
- Binary fission
- Multiple fission
- Sexual Reproduction
Some important points of the chapter ‘Reproduction in organism’ are as follows-
- Fertilization is the fusion of male and female gametes. It is also called a synonym. This results in the formation of a diploid zygote.
- Fragmentation occurs by breaking the parent body into two or more parts, each of which grows to form an independent individual, e.g. Algae like Spirogyra and Bryophytes like Marchantia, Riccia.
- Regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction in which a missing part of an organism is repaired by the proliferation of cells, e.g. Hydra, Planaria, and SpongeBob.
2) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction In Flowering Plants
Sexual reproduction is the process of fusion of haploid gametes, resulting in the production of a diploid zygote, which eventually develops into a new organism. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Free PDF Download.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 2 are structured here for the students to score high in the exam. Below is a list of topics from the chapter ‘Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants’: –
- Flower – A Fascinating Organ of Angiosperms
- Pre-fertilisation : Structures and Events
- Double Fertilisation
- Post-fertilisation: Structures and Events
- Apomixis and Polyembryony
Some important points of the chapter ‘Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants’ are as follows-
- Endosperm refers to a cell that is formed when the sperm nucleus fuses with a central cell that is binucleated.
- Fertilization and post-fertilization events- This is related to fertilization and post-fertilization events concerning reproduction in plants.
- Gametogenesis in plants is a biological process that leads to cell division of diploid and haploid precursor cells.
- Morphology of Flower- This part deals with the shape, form, and structure of flowers.
- Outbreeding Device and Pollen Pistil Interaction- Pollination is the process by which plants transfer pollen grains from the anther to the pistil.
3) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction
Humans are sexually reproducing animals. There are notable differences between reproductive events and systems in males and females. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Human Reproduction in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 3 are provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. The list of topics of the chapter ‘Human Reproduction’ is given below: –
- The Male Reproductive System
- The Female Reproductive System
- Menstrual Cycle
- Fertilisation and Implantation
- Pregnancy and Embryonic Development
- Parturition and Lactation
Some important points of the chapter ‘Human Reproduction’ are as follows-
- Female Reproductive System- This section introduces the students to the female reproductive system like ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, etc.
- Male Reproductive System- It refers to the male reproductive organs which are in the pelvic region in the testes, a pair of accessory ducts, glands, and external genitals.
- Menstrual Cycle- This unit decodes the various aspects of the menstrual cycle in a systematic order.
- Gametogenesis in humans explains the process through which testes in males and ovaries in females produce sperm and ovum for reproduction.
4) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health
Reproductive health refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health means complete well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e. physical, emotional, behavioral, and social. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Free Pdf.
These NCERT solutions are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The list of topics of the chapter ‘Reproductive Health’ is given below: –
- Reproductive Health – Problems and Strategies
- Population Explosion and Birth Control
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Some important points from the chapter ‘Reproductive Health’ are as follows-
- MTP and STD- This unit explains to the students about the disorders of the reproductive system for greater awareness and prevention of such disorders.
- Amniocentesis and Birth Control- Students will study birth control and the various options available for birth control.
- Assisted Reproductive Technology- You will learn how any couple can have a child with assisted reproductive technology.
5) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Inheritance is the process by which characters are passed from parent to child; This is the basis of heredity. Diversity is the degree to which offspring differ from their parents. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 Principles of Inheritance and Variation Free PDF Download.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 5 are structured here for the students to score high in the exam. The list of topics of the chapter ‘Principles of Inheritance and Variation’ is given below: –
- Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
- Inheritance of One Gene
- Inheritance of Two Genes
- Sex Determination
- Genetic Disorders
Some important points of the chapter ‘Principles of Inheritance and Variation’ are as follows-
- Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with inheritance and the variation of traits from parent to offspring.
- Inheritance is the process by which characters or traits are transferred from one generation to another.
- Diversity is the degree to which offspring differ from each other and their parents. Humans knew as early as 8000–1000 BC that one of the causes of variation lies in sexual reproduction.
- Gregor Johann Mendel was the first to use experiments to understand the inheritance patterns of variation in living beings.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
The molecular basis of inheritance explains the study of genes, genetic diversity, and heredity. It describes how an offspring is similar to the parent. DNA, RNA, and genetic code form the basis of the molecular basis of inheritance. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 6 are provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. The list of topics in the chapter ‘Molecular Basis of Inheritance’ is given below: –
- The DNA
- The Search for Genetic Material
- RNA World
- Genetic Code
- Regulation of Gene Expression
- Human Genome Project
- DNA Fingerprinting
Some important points from the chapter ‘Molecular Basis of Inheritance’ are as follows-
- In Mendel’s later years, the nature of genetic material was investigated, resulting in the realization that DNA is the genetic material in most organisms.
- Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are two types of nucleic acids found in living systems. Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.
- DNA serves as the genetic material in most organisms, while RNA serves as the genetic material in some viruses.
- RNA mostly acts as a messenger. RNA has other functions as an adaptor, structural or catalytic molecule.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Evolution
Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and depends on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species are related and change slowly over time. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 7 Evolution Free Pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 7 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The list of topics of the chapter ‘Evolution’ is given below: –
- Origin of Life
- Evolution of Life Forms – A Theory
- What are the Evidences for Evolution?
- What is Adaptive Radiation?
- Biological Evolution
- Mechanism of Evolution
- Hardy – Weinberg Principle
- A Brief Account of Evolution
- Origin and Evolution of Man
Some important points of the chapter ‘Evolution’ are as follows-
- The study of the history of organisms on Earth is called evolutionary biology.
- Evolution is a process that results in genetic changes in a population spread over several generations, leading to the diversity of organisms on Earth.
- Origin of First Cell :-
- The first non-cellular life forms originated three million years ago.
- These molecules were like RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides.
- Cellular life forms first evolved about 2000 million years ago.
- These were single-celled formed in the aquatic environment.
- This form of biogenesis, i.e. the first form of life that arose gradually from non-living molecules through evolutionary forces, has been accepted by many scientists.
8) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases
The human body is prone to many diseases, be it due to genetic defects, infections, or an unhealthy lifestyle. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 Human Health and Diseases in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 8 are structured here for the students to score high in the examination. The list of subjects of the chapter ‘Human Health and Diseases’ is given below: –
- Common Diseases in Humans
- Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
Some important points of the chapter ‘Human Health and Diseases’ are as follows-
- Immunity is defined as the body’s ability to defend, defend and fight invading pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and other foreign bodies and toxins.
- A disease is an abnormal condition that affects a healthy living organism. It is broadly divided into infectious and non-infectious.
- These diseases are caused by pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and can easily spread from person to person, hence it is also known as an infectious or communicable disease.
- Diseases that cannot be transmitted from person to person are called non-communicable diseases, also known as non-communicable diseases.
9) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Many new technologies such as embryo transfer techniques and tissue culture techniques are going to play an important role in further increasing food production. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 9 are provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. The topics of the chapter ‘Strategies for enhancement in food production’ are listed below: –
- Animal Husbandry
- Plant Breeding
- Single Cell Proteins
- Tissue Culture
Some important points of the chapter ‘Strategies for enhancement in food production’ are as follows-
- Dairy farm management is the management of livestock for milk and its products.
- Poultry farm management is a class of domesticated birds used for food or their eggs which usually includes ducks and chickens.
- Animal breeding between animals of the same breed is called inbreeding while crossing between different breeds is called outbreeding.
- The process of inbreeding leads to increased homozygosity so it is necessary to develop a pure line in any animal. Some other aspects of animal breeding are – outbreeding, out-crossing, cross-breeding, interspecific hybridization.
- Beekeeping or beekeeping is the maintenance of beehives for the production of honey.
- Fishing is concerned with the capture, processing, or selling of fish, shellfish, or other aquatic animals.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes are major components of biological systems on Earth. They are present everywhere like in soil, water, air, inside our body, and inside other animals and plants. They can also be found inside geysers (thermal vents), deep in the soil, under layers of ice, and in highly acidic environments. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 10 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. Below is the list of topics from the chapter Microbes in Human Welfare: –
- Microbes in Household Products
- Microbes in Industrial Products
- Microbes in Sewage Treatment
- Microbes in Production of Biogas
- Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
- Microbes as Biofertilisers
Some important points of the chapter ‘Microbes in Human Welfare’ are as follows-
- Methanobacterium, commonly found in anaerobic sludge, facilitates sewage treatment. They are also found in the rumen of ruminants in biogas production.
- Cow dung, known as cow dung, is rich in bacteria. Therefore, cow dung can be used for the production of biogas which is commonly known as cow dung.
- The implementation of biological methods to control pests and diseases related to plants is called biological control. This has been achieved through chemicals such as insecticides and insecticides.
- The use of bio-control measures will reduce the dependence on toxic chemicals and pesticides to a great extent.
- Organic farming promotes life forms like agricultural life, pests, and predators, life cycles, feeding patterns which will help in developing suitable means of biological control.
- Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the widely recognized and most well-understood product of microbial pest control product currently available. Several different strains representing at least 30 subspecies are now recognized based on their surface flagellar antigen and insecticidal activities.
- Advances in genetic engineering have allowed scientists to pursue B. thuringiensis toxin genes to be carried into plant bodies, making them resistant to insect attacks. For example – Bt-cotton
11) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes
The technology of using living organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans is part of the biotechnological process. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Biotechnology Principles and Processes Download Free PDF.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 11 are structured here for the students to score high in the examination. Below is a list of topics from the chapter ‘Biotechnology Principles and Processes’: –
- Principles of Biotechnology
- Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
- Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
Some important points of the chapter ‘Biotechnology Principles and Processes’ are as follows-
- Genetic engineering, which is used to modify the DNA of a target organism, thereby changing the phenotype of the organism.
- Bioprocess engineering, which is the maintenance of sterile conditions to support the growth of large quantities of desired microbes and other eukaryotic cells, which are used to produce new or modified biotechnological products such as antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, etc.
- The techniques of genetic engineering mainly include: –
- DNA fragment is isolated from the donor organism.
- It is inserted into the vector DNA.
- It is transferred into an appropriate host.
- Cloning of the recombinant DNA in the host organism.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology And Its Application
Biotechnology is primarily concerned with the industrial-scale production of biopharmaceuticals and biologicals. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 12 Biotechnology and Its Application Free PDF.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 12 are provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Below is a list of topics from the chapter ‘Biotechnology and its applications’: –
- Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture
- Biotechnological Applications in Medicine
- Transgenic Animals
- Ethical Issues
Some important points of the chapter ‘Biotechnology and its applications’ are as follows-
- Biotechnology is mostly used in various fields to modify and produce a useful product for human benefit.
- Bt cotton – The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces proteins that kill certain insects such as lepidopterans, coleopterans (beetles), and dipterans (flies, mosquitoes).
- Complementary dsRNA can be obtained from infection with RNA genomes or viruses that contain mobile genetic elements that replicate via RNA intermediates.
- Nematode-specific genes were introduced into the host plant using Agrobacterium vectors. The parasite could not survive in a transgenic host expressing the specific interfering RNA.
13) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Populations
Ecology is the branch of biology that mainly describes the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. There are four levels of biological organization. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 Organisms and Population in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 13 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The following is a list of topics from the chapter ‘Organisms and Population’: –
- Organism and Its Environment
- Population Growth
- Population Interaction
- Population Attributes
Some important points of the chapter ‘Organisms and Population’ are as follows-
- Adaptation is any quality of an organism, i.e. morphological, physiological or behavioral, that enables the organism to survive and reproduce in its habitat.
- A group of individuals or organisms living in a well-defined geographical area at a specific time is known as a population.
- Population growth models include: –
- Exponential Growth- In a limited supply of food, the population follows an exponential growth.
- Logistic Growth- Population growth is said to be logistic when resources are limited and sooner or later become limited.
- Hibernation is a system of animals conserving energy to survive adverse weather conditions or lack of food. This includes physiological changes such as a drop in body temperature and a slowed metabolism.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature, where living organisms interact with each other and also with the surrounding physical environment. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 14 Ecosystem Download Free Pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 14 are structured here for the students to score high in the examination. The list of topics from the chapter ‘Ecosystem’ is given below: –
- Ecosystem–Structure and Function
- Energy Flow
- Ecological Pyramids
- Ecological Succession
- Nutrient Cycling
- Ecosystem Services
Some important points of the chapter ‘Ecosystem’ are as follows-
- The size of an ecosystem varies greatly from a small pond to a large forest or ocean.
- Ecosystems can be divided into two main categories: –
- Terrestrial ecosystem – forest, grassland, desert, etc.
- Aquatic ecosystem – Pond, lake, river, wetland, estuary, etc.
- Crop fields and aquariums are considered man-made ecosystems.
- All green plants are called producers because they make their food using solar energy in the ecosystem. All living organisms depend on plants for both oxygen and food.
- Consumers – These include both primary consumers and secondary consumers. Since animals depend on plants for their food, they are called consumers.
- Primary consumers feed their food directly to producers and secondary consumers feed their food to primary consumers. All herbivorous animals are examples of primary consumers.
- Carnivores and apex predators form secondary and tertiary consumers.
- Decomposers- They are saprophytes which include fungi and bacteria. Decomposers convert the dead matter into nitrogen and carbon dioxide and this process is called decomposition.
- Energy flow is the flow of energy along the food chain through different trophic levels.
- Energy is transferred from producers to decomposers through different trophic levels.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation
Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complex of which they are part. This includes diversity within species, between species, and within ecosystems. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation in PDF for free.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 15 are provided herein a simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Below is a list of topics from the chapter ‘Biodiversity and Conservation’: –
- Loss of Biodiversity
- Biodiversity Conservation
- Reason of Biodiversity Conservation
Some important points of the chapter ‘Biodiversity and Conservation’ are as follows-
- Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genes in the genetic makeup of a species. For example- genetic variation is shown by Rauwolfia vomitoria (medicinal plant)
- Species diversity represents the number of species found in an ecological community. Example- Western Ghats have more amphibian species than the Eastern Ghats
- Ecological Diversity – A particular area with its deserts, mangroves, rain forests, etc. witnessed greater diversity at the ecosystem level.
- Tropical regions have been undisturbed for many years. This resulted in the diversification of species in the tropics.
- The environment is more predictable and stable in the tropics. This is another reason for the increase in species diversity.
- Solar energy leads to higher productivity and helps to increase biodiversity in the tropics.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues
The environment is an essential issue even when society is facing economic crises, wars, and endless social problems. This matters because Earth is the only home that humans have, and it provides air, food, and other necessities. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 16 Environmental Issues Download Free Pdf.
These NCERT Solutions for Chapter 16 are provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. The list of subjects of the chapter ‘Environmental Issues’ is given below: –
- Air Pollution and Its Control
- Water Pollution and Its Control
- Solid Wastes
- Agro-chemicals and their Effects
- Radioactive Wastes
- Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
- Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere
- Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance
Some important points of the chapter ‘Environmental Issues’ are as follows-
- Pollution is generally defined as an undesirable change in the biological, chemical, and physical composition of air, water, and soil.
- Global warming refers to the gradual increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. This is caused by an increase in the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that prevents heat from escaping into outer space, thereby warming the Earth. It is a serious environmental issue caused by both natural and human impacts.
- Solid waste includes waste from homes, offices, schools, and hospitals that are collected and disposed of by the municipality. These generally include paper, plastic, metal, rubber, glass, cloth, leather, etc.
- Depletion of natural resources is a significant current environmental problem caused by the consumption of fossil fuels resulting in the emission of greenhouse gases which are mainly responsible for global warming and climate change.
- Deforestation is another environmental issue that destroys forests for construction and raw materials. It has added to many environmental problems such as soil erosion, global warming, extinction of biodiversity, etc.
Benefits of Solving Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions
- NCERT Solutions provides step by step explanation of every question given in the textbooks. It is one of the most valuable aids for the students in their homework and exams as well.
- Solving these NCERT solutions will help the students to clear all their doubts.
- These NCERT solutions are designed as per the syllabus of the subject concerned and thus, provide proper guidance along with the entire learning process.
- NCERT solutions help in clearing difficult concepts as these NCERT solutions are prepared using proper explanations.
- To score maximum marks in the exam, students need to practice these NCERT solutions as it consists of different types of questions for practice purpose. This will help the students to solve the wrong questions easily.
- While studying in CBSE board schools, students always get confused while selecting the right study material. Hence, the best option is NCERT Solutions as it covers the entire CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Biology.
- NCERT solutions give valuable education and also help students to upgrade their skills.
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Sometimes students get stuck on a particular question. These solutions which we are providing here at Study tutee develop an interest in the students towards their studies. These solutions have been prepared by a group of experts so that every student can understand the concept in a simple way without any complexity. Here, we offer you the most reliable solutions.
Biology is one of those subjects which students find difficult but here, at Study tutee, we provide you the most accurate and easiest ways to solve various questions. Moreover, these solutions help the students to develop their reasoning and logical skills. All the study material here is completely based on the latest pattern and syllabus which is prescribed by the CBSE board. All the basics of Class 12 Biology with exercises and solutions are completely covered in the study material provided in the Study tutee.
Download Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions PDF for free from this page and make your practice easy and enjoyable.