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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry are provided here which will enhance the concepts of the students. These NCERT solutions are made available here for all the users so that they can learn online and download free of cost as PDF for more practice during board exams. Moreover, these solutions will help you to score high in competitive exams. We have provided the best solutions for all the chapters as per the latest CBSE Board Syllabus. The goal is to guide individuals to response-solving strategies rather than solving questions in a prescribed format.

We have covered the entire syllabus of CBSE Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions. Chemistry is much more than the language of science. We have made sure our solutions reflect this. NCERT Solutions provides sample material to enable the students to build a good foundation with the fundamentals of the subject. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry are carefully prepared by our team of instructors to provide the students the right way to solve questions in the exam.

To collaborate with you, we are here to provide you with the most important and well-established NCERT Solutions for Class 12. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry are easy to understand and help you identify all the fundamental concepts in a better way. In Study tutee, students are provided with chapter-wise and exercise-based solutions for all the subjects in the NCERT Chemistry Book.

Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions List of Chapters Available in Free PDF

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1) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 The Solid State

Solid-state materials form the basis of many areas of modern science and technology, including long-established materials, such as glasses and cement, materials associated with new technologies, such as advanced ceramics, optoelectronics, and thin-film devices.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 Solid State is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 Solid State Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • General Characteristics of Solid State
  • Amorphous and Crystalline Solids
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids
  • Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells
  • Number of Atoms in a Unit Cells
  • Close Packed Structured
  • Packing Efficiency
  • Calculations Involving Unit Cell Dimension
  • Imperfections in Solids
  • Electrical Properties
  • Magnetic Properties

Some important points from the chapter ‘The Solid State’ are given below-

                                Analysis of Cubical System

             Property                                           SC                     BCC                      FCC       

·         Atomic radius (r)                             a/2                    (3)1/2a/4           a/2(2)1/2

·         No. of atoms per unit cell (Z)        1                         2                            4

·         C No.                                                  6                         8                          12

·         Packing efficiency                          52%                   68%                      74%

 

2) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The solution can be at any level. A solution consists of a solute and a solvent. A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent. The amount of solute that can be dissolved in a solvent is called its solubility.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions are provided here to help students learn and problem solve in a better way. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 Solutions Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Types of Solutions
  • Expressing concentration of Solutions
  • Solubility
  • Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions
  • Ideal and Nonideal Solutions
  • Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass
  • Abnormal Molar Masses

Some important formulas of the chapter ‘Solutions’ are given below-

  • The mass percentage of a component (w/w) = (Mass of component in solution × 100) / Total mass of solution
  • Volume percentage of a component (v/v) = (Volume of the component × 100) / Total volume of solution
  • Mole fraction of a component (x) = Number of moles of the component / Total number of moles of all components
  • Molarity = Number of moles of solute/Volume of solution in litres
  • Molality = Number of moles of solute/Mass of solvent in kilograms
  • Normality = Number of gram equivalent of solute/Volume of solution in litres
3) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and recognizable chemical changes, with either electricity being the result of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 Electrochemistry Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Electrochemical Cells
  • Galvanic Cells
  • Nernst Equation
  • Conductance of Electrolytic Solutions
  • Electrolytic Cells and Electrolysis
  • Batteries
  • Fuel Cells
  • Corrosion

Some important formulas of the chapter ‘Electrochemistry’ are given below-

  • Nernst Equation E = E0 – (2.303RT / nF) log10 [1 / Mn+]
  • Conductance = 1/ R
  • Molar Conductance (µ) =  k × V
  • Faraday First Law of Electrolysis m = ZIt
4) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics

Chemical kinetics, also called reaction kinetics, is the branch of physical chemistry that deals with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. This should be compared to thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a process occurs but tells nothing about its rate.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics is provided here to help the students in better learning and problem-solving. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Kinetics in PDF for free.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Rate of a Chemical Reaction
  • Factors Influencing Rate of a Reaction
  • Integrated Rate Equations
  • Temperature Dependence of the Rate of a Reaction
  • Collision Theory of Chemical Reactions

Some important formulas of the chapter ‘Chemical Kinetics’ are given below-

  • A rate law expresses a mathematical relationship between the reaction rate and the molar concentration of one or more reactants.
  • Rate = dx/dt = k[A]m[B]n
  • The half-life period is the time required to reduce the initial concentration of the reactant to half its value.
  • For first order reaction      t1/2 = 0.693/k
  • The integrated rate equation for a first order reaction is given by:  k = 2.303/t × log10 {[A]0 / [A]t}  
5) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry

It is the study of chemical phenomena occurring at the interface of two surfaces which can be solid-liquid, solid-gas, solid-vacuum, liquid-gas, etc. Various phenomena are happening on the surface of a material and some of them are adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, and corrosion.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 Surface Chemistry Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Adsorption
  • Catalysis
  • Colloids
  • Classification of Colloids
  • Emulsions
  • Colloids Around Us

Some important threads from the chapter ‘Surface Chemistry’ are given below-

  • In a homogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is present in the same phase as the reactants. For example-  CH3COOCH3 (aq) + H2O (aq) –> CH3COOH (aq) + CH3OH (aq)
  • In heterogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is present in a different phase from the reactants. For example-  2SO2(g) + O2(g) –[Pt(s)/V2O5(S)]>  2SO3(g)
  • Enzymes also called biological catalysts, are proteins which catalyze reactions in living systems. For example-  Sucrose > Glucose + Fructose
  • Lyophillic colloids(solvent loving) are those substances that, when exposed to solvent, directly go to the colloidal state, e.g., proteins, starch, rubber, etc.
  • These sols are quite stable due to the strong force of attraction between the particles and the dispersion medium.
  • Lyophobic colloids(solvent hating) are substances that do not readily form colloidal sols when mixed with a dispersion medium. Those sols are less stable than lyophilized solutions.
6) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

The major steps involved in the extraction and separation of metals from the ore are the concentration of the ore, the separation of the metal from its concentrated ore, and the purification of the metal. The whole scientific and technological process used to separate a metal from its ores is known as metallurgy.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements are provided here for the students to learn better and prepare well for the examination. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Free PDF Download.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Occurrence of Metals
  • Concentration of Ores
  • Extraction of Crude Metal from Concentrated Ore
  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy
  • Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy
  • Oxidation Reduction
  • Refining
  • Uses of Aluminium, Copper, Zinc and Iron

Some important points and formulas from the chapter ‘General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements’ are given below-

  • Calcination involves heating the ore below its fusion temperature in the absence of air. It can remove moisture from hydrated oxide or COfrom carbonates. This makes the ore porous. For example-  CaCO3 —> CaO + CO2(g)
  • Roasting is the heating of the ore in the presence of air below its fusion temperature. For example-  2CuFeS2 + O2 —> Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2
  • Smelting involves the reduction of the ore to the molten metal at a high temperature. For the extraction of electropositive metals such as Pb, Fe, Sn, powerful reducing agent like C, H2CO, Al, Mg, etc. are used.
  • The self-reduction process is also called the auto reduction process.
  • Oxides of highly electropositive metals such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al, etc., are removed by electrolysis in the solution state of their oxides, hydroxides, or chlorides. For example, Al is obtained by electrolysis of alumina mixed with cryolite.
  • Refining the process of refining the extracted metals is called refining.
  • Chromatography is based on the principle that different components of a mixture are adsorbed in different amounts on an adsorbent.
7) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 The p-Block Elements

As a result, there are six groups of p-block elements in the periodic table from 13 to 18. Boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and helium are the main groups.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 P-Block Elements are provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 P-Block Elements Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Group 15 Elements
  • Dinitrogen
  • Ammonia
  • Oxides of Nitrogen
  • Nitric Acid
  • Phosphorus — Allotropic Forms
  • Phosphine
  • Phosphorus Halides
  • Oxoacids of Phosphorus
  • Group 16 Elements
  • Dioxygen
  • Simple Oxides
  • Ozone
  • Sulphur — Allotropic Forms
  • Sulphur Dioxide
  • Oxoacids of Sulphur
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Group 17 Elements
  • Chlorine
  • Hydrogen Chloride
  • Oxoacids of Halogens
  • Interhalogen Compounds
  • Group 18 Elements

Some important points and formulas from the chapter ‘P-Block Elements’ are given below-

PREPARATIONS-

Boron Family 
  • By electrolysis of a mixture of boric anhydride (B2O3) and magnesium oxide (MgO) & Magnesium fluoride at 1100 0C
  1. 2 MgO  -> 2Mg + O2(g)
  2. B2O3+ 3Mg  -> 2B + 3MgO
Carbon Family
  • By heating oxides of heavy metals e.g. iron with zinc, carbon, etc.
  1. Fe2O3 + 3C ->  2Fe + 3CO
  2. ZnO + C ->  Zn + CO
  • By passing steam over hot coke: C + H2O ->  CO + H(Water gas)
  • By blowing air over hot coke: 2C + O2+ 4N2  -> 2CO + 4N2 (Producer gas)
Nitrogen Family
  • 3CuO + 2NH3+ Heat -> N2 + Cu + 3H2O
  • CaOCl+ 2NH3+ Heat -> CaCl2+ 3H2O + N2
  • NH4NO2+Heat -> 3H2O + N+Cr2O3
Halogen Family 

All three acids are reducing agents. HCl is not attacked by H2SO4.

  • 2HBr + H2SO4 -> 2H2O + SO2 + Br2 ­
  • 2HI + H2SO4 -> 2H2O + SO2 + I2
The Noble Gases

The noble gases are inert. They do not readily participate in reactions easily because they have

  • Stable electronic configuration i.e. complete octet
  • High ionization energies
  • Low electron affinity
8) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 The d- & f- Block Elements

The names transition metals and inner transition metals are often used to refer to elements in the d- and f-blocks, respectively. The two series of inner transition metals, (4f and 5f) are known as lanthanoids and actinoids, respectively.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 D and F Block Elements are here to help the students to learn and solve the problem better. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 D- and F-Block Elements Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Position in the Periodic Table
  • Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements
  • General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)
  • Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements
  • The Lanthanoids
  • The Actinoids
  • Some Applications of d- and f- Block Elements

Some important points from the chapter ‘The D- and F-Block Elements’ are given below-

  • Elements located in the middle of Periodic Table between s-block and p-block elements (i.e. between group 2 and 13) are called d-block or transition elements.
  • Each of the 10 elements has three transition chains.
  • The first transition series involves filling of 3d-orbitals. It starts from scandium (Z = 21) and goes up to zinc (Z = 30)
  • The second transition series involves filling of 4d-orbitals. It starts from yittrium (Z=39) to cadmium (Z = 48).
  • The third transition series involves filling of 5d-orbitals. The first element of this series is lanthanum (Z = 57). This is followed by 14 elements called lanthanides that involve filling of 4f-orbitals. The next nine elements from hafnium (Z = 72) to mercury (Z = 80) belong to the third transition series.
  • The elements of the f-block are called the inner transition elements.
  • Most transition metals are sufficiently electropositive. This minerals react with acids to release H2
  • Transition elements and many of their compounds are paramagnetic.
9) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds are molecules that form one or more metal centers that are bound by ligands (atoms, ions, or molecules that donate electrons to the metal). These complexes can be neutral or charged. When the compound is charged, it is stabilized by neighboring opposing ions.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compound is provided here to help the students learn and problem solve in a better way. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 Coordination Compounds Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
  • Definitions of Some Important Terms Pertaining to Coordination Compounds
  • Nomenclature of Coordination Compounds
  • Isomerism in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Coordination Compounds
  • Bonding in Metal Carbonyls
  • Importance and Applications of Coordination Compounds

Some important points of the chapter Coordination Compounds’ are given below-

  • Two coordination compounds are said to be geometrical isomers when they differ in the arrangement of their ligands in space. When two identical ligands are in close positions together, the isomer is called the ‘cis-form’ and when they are arranged opposite to each other, the isomer is called the ‘trans-form’.
  • Optical isomerism is shown by chiral molecule, i.e., molecules that do not have a plane of symmetry. For example-  [Cr(ox)3]3-.
  • Linkage isomerism occurs in complexes when a divalent ligand is present in the coordination region. For example-  [CO(NH3)5N02]2+ and [Co(NH3)5(-ONO)]2+.
  • Coordination isomerism occurs in complexes that are composed of a cation and ionic coordination entities, due to the exchange of ligands between the cation and anion entities. For example-  [CO(NH3)6] [Cr(CN)6] and [Co(CN)6] [Cr(NH3)6].
  • Ionization symmetry is due to the exchange of ions in the coordination region of the metal ion and the exchange of ions outside the coordination sphere. Both these two isomers give different ions in an aqueous solution. For example-  [Co(NH3)5Br]2+S042- and [Co(NH3)5(S04)]+ Br
  • Solvate or hydrate isomerism occurs when water is inside or outside a coordination unit. For example-   CrCl3-6H20 has three isomers.
10) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes and haloarenes are hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms. The primary difference between haloalkanes and haloarenes is that haloalkanes are derived from open-chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) whereas haloarenes are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes in PDF for free.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Nature of C-X Bond
  • Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes
  • Preparation of Haloarenes
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Polyhalogen Compounds

Some important points from the chapter ‘Haloalkanes and Haloarenes’ are given below-

  • Haloalkanes are classified according to the type of halogen present as Fluoro, Chloro, Bromo or Iodo compounds and classified as mono-, di- tri-, tetra- haloalkanes, etc. Halogens are atoms according to one, two, three, four, etc. respectively present in their molecule.
  • According to the halogen atom attached to the primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon atoms, alkyl halides are further classified as primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°). 
  • Due to the electronegativity difference between carbon and halogen, the electron sharing pair is closer to the halogen atom. As a result, the halogens have a small negative charge, while the carbons have a small positive charge. Consequently, the C–X bond is a polar covalent bond.
11) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols and phenols are formed when a hydrocarbon, an aliphatic, and an aromatic hydrogen atom are replaced by a -OH group, respectively. … the replacement of a hydrogen atom in hydrocarbons by an alkoxy or aryloxy group (R–O/Ar–O) yields another class of compounds known as ‘ethers’, for example, CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether).

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohol, Phenol, and Ether are provided here to help the students in their better learning and problem-solving. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Structures of Functional Groups
  • Alcohols and Phenols
  • Some Commercially Important Alcohols
  • Ethers

Some important points from the chapter ‘Alcohol, Phenol and Ether’ are given below-

  • Alcohols and phenols can be classified as monohydric, dihydric, trihydric, or polyhydric according to the number of one, two, three, or several hydroxyl groups in their molecules, respectively.
  • Primary (1°), secondary (2°), and tertiary (3°) alcohols are those in which the OH group is attached to the primary, secondary, and tertiary carbon atom, respectively.
  • Ethers are classified as simple or symmetric ethers if the alkyl or aryl groups attached to the oxygen atom are the same, and mixed or asymmetric ethers if the two groups differ.
12) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

The carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond) is the key structure in these classes of organic molecules: Aldehydes contain at least one hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl carbon atom, ketones contain two carbon groups attached to the carbonyl carbon atom, carboxylic acids contain a hydroxyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon atom.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids are provided here to help the students to learn and solve the problem better. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids Free PDF Download.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
  • Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones
  • Nomenclature and Structure of Carboxyl Group
  • Methods of Preparation of Carboxylic Acids
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Uses of Carboxylic Acids

Some important points from the chapter ‘Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids’ are given below-

  • The classes of organic compounds containing the carbonyl group (CO) as the functional group are aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and their derivatives. These are collectively called carbonyl compounds.
  • The oxygen atom in the carbonyl group is far more electronegative than the carbon atom. As a result, the oxygen atom is attracted to the bond’s electron cloud  i. e., >C = O the electron cloud of O is asymmetric.
    Hence the carbonyl carbon acquires a positive charge and the carbonyl oxygen carries a negative charge. Thus, the carbonyl group is polar.
  • Methods for making Aldehydes and Ketones:
    (a) Aldehydes and ketones are produced by controlled oxidation of primary and secondary alcohol,
    (b)
    On dehydrogenation primary alcohols produce aldehydes while secondary alcohols produce ketones.
13) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines

Amines are organic compounds that are often based on one or more nitrogen atoms. Structurally the amine resembles ammonia in that nitrogen can bind up to three hydrogens, but the amine also has additional properties based on carbon connectivity.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amines is provided here for the students to learn better and prepare well for the exam. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 Amin Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Structure of Amines
  • Classification
  • Nomenclature
  • Preparation of Amines
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Method of Preparation of Diazoniun Salts
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds

Some important points of the chapter ‘Amines’ are given below-

  • Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by alkyl groups.
  • Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary because the ammonia molecule contains one, two, or three hydrogen atoms that are replaced by alkyl groups.
  • The general formula of diazonium salts is  RN2+ X, where R stands for an aryl group and the X ion probably Cl, Br, HSO2, BF4, etc.
14) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules

Biomolecules, also called biological molecules, are any of several substances produced by cells and living organisms. Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a variety of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Biomolecules is provided here in the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 Bio-Molecules in Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Vitamins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Hormones

Some important points of the chapter ‘Bio Molecules’ are given below-

  • The molecular formula of glucose is C6H12O6. It is prepared by boiling sucrose in a solution of alcohol with dilute HCl or dilute H2SOor by hydrolysis of starch with H2SO4 at 393 K under pressure.
  • A pair of stereoisomeric ring forms of any sugar that differ in the configuration on carbon 1 (the anomalous carbon) are called an anomers.
  • Spontaneous change in specific rotation of an optically active sugar when dissolved in water is known as 
  • The cyclic structure of glucose was proposed by R. D. Haworth. The six-membered cyclic structure of glucose is called the pyranose structure (α or β).
  • The hydrolysis of sucrose causes a change in the rotational mark from Dextro (+) to laevo (-). Such a change is known a inversion of sugar.
15) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers

Polymers are substances that are made up of long, repeating chains of molecules. Materials have unique properties, which depend on the type of molecules bound to them and how they are bound. Few polymers bend and stretch like rubber and polyester. Others are tough, such as epoxy and glass.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers is provided here for the students to learn better and prepare well for the exam. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 Polymers Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Polymers
  • Types of Polymers
  • Uses of Polymers

Some important points from the chapter ‘Polymers’ are given below-

  • A polymer is a large molecule of high molecular mass formed by the repetitive bonding of many smaller molecules called monomers. The process by which monomers are converted into polymers is called polymerization.
  • Natural rubber is 1,4-polyisoprene. It is a linear 1,4-polymer of isoprene. It is manufactured from rubber latex which is a colloidal suspension of rubber in water.
  • The process of heating a mixture of raw rubber and sulfur from 373 K to 415 K is called vulcanization of rubber. The process of vulcanization is accelerated by adding additives such as ZnO.
  • Biodegradable polymers: PHBV and Nylon 2- Nylon-6 have been developed to reduce the environmental hazards of synthetic polymeric waste.
16) NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry is a big part of our daily life. This branch of science can be easily seen in various areas of human life such as the food we eat, the air we breathe, the use of various cleaning agents, even human emotions. Sometimes they are the result of chemical reactions within us. the body.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life is provided herein the most simple and understandable pattern for the students to gain more proficiency. Download NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life Free PDF.

The list of topics of this chapter is given below-

  • Drugs and their Classification
  • Drug-Target Interaction
  • Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs
  • Chemicals in Food
  • Cleansing Agents

Some important points from the chapter ‘Chemistry in Everyday Life’ are given below-

  • Antihistamines are drugs that are used to treat allergies such as skin rashes.
  • Tranquilizers are chemical compounds used to treat stress and mental illnesses. Also known as psychotropic drugs.
  • Analgesics are drugs used to relieve pain.
  • Antibiotics are chemical substances that are produced by certain organisms (bacteria, fungi, and molds) as metabolic products and can destroy or inhibit the growth of some other micro-organisms.
  • Antiseptics are chemical compounds that inhibit the growth of micro-organisms or can even kill them. For example – Dettol.
  • Disinfectants kill microorganisms. They are not safe to be applied to living human tissues.
  • Artificial sweeteners are chemical compounds that are added to make foods sweet.

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