Biography of ANDREW CARNEGIE in Short



Andrew was twelve years old when he started work in a giant textile mill, dashing back and forth collecting bobbins of cotton. His family had sold everything they owned to move from Scotland to America in search of a better life. It was 1848 and Andrew earned $1.40 a week.
At fourteen, he got a job working as a secretary to a man called Thomas Scott, a secretary of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Andrew read and wrote and went to night school. A few years later, he had his boss’s job.
While there, he invested in a company that made the first sleeper cars, train carriages where passengers could sleep peacefully as they chugged through the dusty American nights. They were a success and Andrew went to Europe in search of new investments.
On one trip, he met with steelmakers in England. Andrew could see great potential in the new metal because of its incredible strength and low cost. He headed back to America and set up his own steel plant.
Soon, he didn’t just own steel plants, but the raw materials that were needed to make it, the ships and railroads to
transport it, and the coal fields that provided fuel for the furnaces.
After selling his company, Andrew’s net worth was around $475 million dollars, or S310 billion in today’s money. He opened over 2800 libraries: set up trusts in the UK and America that would help students, children, and the poor; and created a peace foundation that sought to spread messages of harmony between nations.
Many of the trusts still run today By the time he died, only around thirty million dollars of his fortune was left. A man who dies rich, dies disgraced Andrew wrote. He believed that there was no point in having money unless you used it to help others.
Today, Andrew’s generosity continues to be felt by people all over the world.


Biography of ANDY WARHOL in Short



Thirty-two separate paintings of soup cans, copper metal turned blue with human pee, a bright yellow banana: these are all famous examples of work by Andy Warhol, one of the most ground breaking artists who ever lived.
Andy grew up among the smog and grime of Pittsburgh, an industrial city in the east of America. He was ill as a child and forced to spend a lot of time in bed. To keep him from getting bored, his mother taught him how to sketch, paint, and print. Once he’d learned how, Andy never stopped
Through a passion for art, he became the first person in his family to go to college. But he struggled, failing the first year. It looked like he wouldn’t be allowed back.
That summer, Andy worked alongside his brother on a fruit and veg van. In quiet moments, he’d grab a pencil and sketch the strange characters who’d come to buy food. When a professor saw the drawings, Andy was allowed back to college, which he completed before boarding a train to New York City, determined to make it as an artist.
Andy would take familiar images and present them in ways no one had ever seen before. Like many other revolutionaries who had come before him, he tested the limits of what art could be. Marcel Duchamp bad once put a toilet in an art gallery, Andy offered the world soap pads and coke bottles
He also made experimental films, which people were confused by at the time but are now considered important. In one, a man cats a mushroom for forty-five minutes. In another, a poet sleeps for six hours.
Is it art?
Andy once claimed: Art is what you can get away with
When he died, Andy’s will was fulfilled: his money was used to create The Andy Warhol Foundation. To this day it encourages and promotes the risk takers and mischief makers of the art world.


Biography of ANNA AKHMATOVA in Short



If you wrote a poem in the Soviet Union at the beginning of the twentieth century, you may have been putting yourself in terrible danger. The government, ruled by a brutal dictator named Stalin, might ransack your house, kidnap your relatives, and even make you disappear if you wrote anything that spoke against it.
Anna had been writing poetry since she was eleven. She’d never let anything stop her before. When her father said he didn’t want his surname connected to her silly scribblings, she started using her grandmother’s instead, and she moved away.
She travelled to St Petersburg and met a group of other young poets who shared the same ideas and hopes. They wrote together, creating their own movement and magazines, and soon the whole city was talking about them.
Then, when Stalin came to power, people started being taken away in the night, simply for talking out about the government Expressing your opinion was forbidden.
Anna hated Stalin and his brutality So the government filled her house with microphones, stationed spies outside to watch her, and threw the people she loved most into prison.
She was living in terror, and poetry was the only way she had of fighting back. But it had become too dangerous to write poems. Even if you wrote them down and hid them under your pillow. the police might search your house and find the evidence.
To get around this, Anna stopped writing her poems on paper. Instead, she created them in her head, then taught them to the women she could trust. She would recite them over and over again with her friends, until it was sure that someone would keep them safely in their memory.
Anna would not forget the people who had died and she didn’t want the world to forget either
“You will hear thunder and remember me, she wrote.
After the Soviet Union collapsed, Anna became one of Russia’s best loved poets.