1.what is a natural disaster?
Human, cause that results in large-scale loss of life or A natural disaster is an event with a natural, as opposed to damage to property. It could be related to weather, geology or even factors outside the Earth. Examples are earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts and flooding.
2.what are earthquakes?
Earthquakes are among the most destructive natural disasters. They Occur at or near fault lines: cracks in the Earth’s crust that mark the sections. When these sections move Earthquake boundary between two different relative to one another, the resulting vibration produces an earthquake.
3.what is a volcano ?
A volcano is an opening on the surface of a planet or moon that
allows material warmer than its surroundings to escape from its interior. When this material escapes, it causes an eruption Volcanoes can be active, dormant, or extinct.
VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES
1.What is the Ring of Fire ?
The Pacific Ring of Fire is a horseshoe shaped 10,000 kilometres
long region in the Pacific Ocean. It runs from Chile in South merica to the Southern part of Alaska in the cast to Russia, hilippines, New Guinea and New Zealand’s North Island in the west. It has 75% of the Ring of Fire earthquakes of the world occur in this region. world’s total active and dormant volcanoes and 90% of the total.
2.What is the most active volcano on Earth?
The most active volcano on Earth is Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy. It has been erupting since the last 3,500 years. Its most recent
eruption was as late as in 2011. Mount Etna, Sicily, Italy.
3.Which is the worst earthquake ever?
The most powerful earthquake ever recorded on Earth was the 1960 Valdivia Earthquake which measured 9.5 on Richter scale. However the most deadly earthquake occurred in 1556 in Shaanxi, China. Its magnitude was 8.0 Richter. It killed about 8,30,000 people.
HURRICANES, CYCLONES AND TYPHOONS
1.What is a hurricane?
A hurricane is a huge storm fent be up to 600 miles across and have strong winds spiralling inward and word at speeds of 75 to 200 mph. Each hurricane usually its or over a week, moving 10-20 miles per hour over the open ocean.
2.Where do hurricanes occur mostly?
Hurricanes typically form between 5 to 15 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The Coriolis Force, which is Deeded to create the spin in the hurricane, becomes too weak near the equator. So, hurricanes can never form there,
3.What is the difference between a hurricane, a cyclone and a typhoon?
Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon; we just use different names for these storms in different places. In the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific, the term “hurricane” is used The same type of disturbance in the Northwest Pacific is called a “typhoon” and “cyclones” occur in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.
TSUNAMIS AND FLOODS
1.What is a tsunami?
The word tsunami comes from the Japanese word meaning harbour ave. ” Tsunamis are sometimes incorrectly called “tidal waves — tsunamis are not caused by the tides. A tsunami is a series of ocean waves Tsunami Wores landslides, or volcanic activity. generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor,
2.How big can tsunamis get?
A tsunami may be less than a foot (30 centimeters) in height on the surface of the open ocean. But as they crash upon the shore their height depends on the underwater surface features. They can be as high as 30 m (100 feet) or more
3.What are floods?
A flood is a great flowing or overflowing of water onto land that is not usually submerged. A flood happens when too much rain falls and cannot be absorbed by the soil. Rivers burst their banks and the water spills onto the Floods land.
WHERE DO FROGS LAY THEIR EGGS?
Frogs are amphibians, which means they can live on land as well as in water. Many kinds of frog go to the water to lay their eggs. Mostly, they lay their eggs in spring. The frogs lay eggs in quiet places, usually at the edges of ponds and small lakes. The yellow free frog chooses to lay its eggs in water or on plants overhanging water depending on the amount of shade. In shaded ponds, the frogs lay eggs on leaves above the water; while in unshaded ponds, the frogs lay most of their eggs in the water. The eggs are enclosed in a mass of jelly which is attached to a plant in the pond. When the eggs are first laid, the mass is the size of a teacup, but it swells up with water to several times the size, by the time the eggs hatch. The eggs may take a few days or a few weeks to hatch. Afier hatching, each of the tadpoles lives life like that of a fish. About 7-10 weeks later, the tadpoles grow legs and lungs and develop into frogs and are ready to leave the water. The male Darwin’s frog swallows the eggs and keeps them in its throat until they hatch and pop out of its mouth.
WHERE DO GREEN TURTLES LAYTHEIR EGGS?
Turtles, tortoises and encom all belong to the family reptiles called chelonion Turtles are mostly found the sea and fresh water turtles, whether they live in land, in fresh water or in the seo, lay their eggs on lond Sea turtles lay their eggs on sandy beaches. Many female seo tunles have a homing in stind. This means the they return to the beach, where they were born, to lay their eggs. Laying eggs on land is hard work for a female sea turtle. While swimming, o female sea turtle can glide through the water with ease. But on a beach, she must slowly drag herself across the sand. A female sea turtle looks foro spot that will be safe at the time of a high tide. Once she has found o safe spot, she digs a hole in the sand with her back feet. The female sea turtle, then, lays her eggs inside the hole and covers them with sand. When the work is finished, she heads towards he water. Over the period, the sand incubates or warms the eggs. This helps the baby turtles grow inside the safety of their shells until they are ready to hatch. Most baby sea turtles hatch after about two months of incubation,
WHERE DO THE EMPEROR AND KING PENGUINS PROTECT THEIR EGGS?
Penguins live in huge colonies called rookeries along the coast of swimmers. The emperor and king Antarctica and nearby islands. They cannot fly but they are excellent penguins do not build any nest. Each of them lays only one egg. It is the male bird which has the responsibility of taking care of the egg and protecting the young chick after its birth. In case of an emperor penguin, the male emperor penguin keeps the newly laid egg warm, but it does not sit on the egg as many other birds do. Each male emperor penguin stands and protects its egg from its predator by balancing the egg on its feel and covering it with feathered skin known as a brood pouch. Mother penguin, then, sets off back to the sea on an extended hunting trip that lasts some two months. Male emperor penguins with their valuable eggs sit huddled together on the ice throughout the dark weeks and months of the Antarctic night. During this time, they lose about 40% of their body weight. They use less energy while asleep. So, they prefer to sleep as long as possible. It is not unusual for empero penguins to sleep for 20 or more hour a day.
WHERE ARE PUFFINS FOUND?
of puffins A puffin belongs to the auk family of seabirds. There are three species -the Atlantic puffin, the Homed puffin and the tufted puttin For most of the year, when they are not breeding, putting are to be found bobbing about on the waters of the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans often hundreds of kilometres in the from land. The Atlantic Puffin is the smallest of the puttins. It is found exclusively North Atlantic Ocean. In North America, it nests from Labrador to the northeastem United States. In Europe, it nests from south to the Brittany Coast of France, northwards to Iceland, Greenland and Northern Russia. Most of the world’s puffins are found in Iceland where sixty per cent of the population breeds. One of the species of the puffins has a very large triangular bill which is bright red, blue and yellow in the summer. This species breeds on rocky islands of the coasts of Siberia, Alaska and British Columbia. The puffing of this species give bitth to their young ones in burrows, in rocky cavities or among rocks.
WHERE ARE COBRAS FOUND?
Cobra is the common name for the members of the family of venomous snakes known for their intimidating looks and deadly bites. Cobras are recognized by the hoods that they flare when angry or disturbed. The hood of a cobra is created by elongated ribs that extend the loose skin of the neck behind the cobra’s head. Cobras often feed on eggs and chicks raided from poultry houses. Their natural prey includes small mammals, loads, lizards, birds and other snakes. The different species of cobras live in habitats ranging from tropical rain forests and swamps to sovannas and deserts. Because many species of cobras prey on small rodents, snokes may hunt or live in areas around human settlements or in fields where crops grow and rodents thrive. Cobras are found in most parts of Africa except for the Sahara Desert. Their range extends through the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia, into Southeast Asia (as far as Indonesia and the Philippines) and into southern China,
WHERE DOES A HEDGEHOG GO IN WINTER?
A hedgehog is a small which looks like o porcupine has short ears and legs, o shon tail and a long nose. A hedger has stift, sharp needle like growth, called spines, on its bod to protect itself from its predelo It can roll itself into o prickly bol to protect its soft underparts , when there is danger. In winter, a hedgehog goes into hibernation, which is a sleep-like state in order to protect itself from the cold on reduce its need for food. The body temperature of the hedgeho, decreases and its heartbeat and breathing are also slowed down too great extent. In this state, it requires little energy to keep itself alive. can live on the food which is stored in the form of fal in the body Hedgehogs nest in a hibernaculum throughout the winter, but the may wake up several times. The nest is about 50cm in diameter. It is mostly made of leaves, grass and various other plants. Hedgehogs also nest in semi-manmade structures, such as a pile of logs.
WHERE ARE BACTERIA FOUND?
Bacteria are unicellular and share the characteristics of both plants and animals. They are the most widespread forms of life existing on the und earth. They cannot be seen with the naked eye. They are visible only under a microscope. Hence, they are called micro-organisms About two thousand species of bacteria are known to have existed and they are found proctically everywhere on the earth Some exist in the mouths, noses and intestines of animals, including human beings. Others thrive on fallen leaves, dead trees, animal wastes and carcasses. They are also found in fresh and salt water, in milk and in most food. They live in dust and soil. A single teaspoon of topsoil contains about a billion bacterial cells. The human mouth is home to more than 500 species of bacteria Some bacteria thrive in the most forbidding, uninviting places on the earth, from nearly boiling hot springs to super-chilled Antarctic lakes buried under the sheets of ice. Most bacteria are either harmless or actually helpful to other forms of life. They are responsible for the decomposition of dead plants and animals. They also play an important role in the digestive process of almost all living organisms.
WHERE ARE CORAL REEFS FOUND?
Coral is a limestone for nation formed in the sea by millions of tiny animals called polyps. Coral animals cannot live in water cooler than 165°F (18°C), therefore, coral reefs are found mostly in warm, shallow, and tropical seas. Coral reefs are located in three primary regions located between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees 5 of the equator: the Indo-Pacific, the Western Atlantic and the Red Sea. The Indo-Pacific region stretches from southeast Asia through Polynesia and Australia, eastward across the Indian Ocean to Africa. This is the largest and richest assemblage of reels in terms of the species of corals and fish. The Western Allantic region stretches from Florida to Brazil, including Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Caribbean, Belize and the Gulf of Mexico. The Red Sea is the smallest of the three regions, located between Africa and Saudi Arabia. It is considered a separate region because of the high number of coral reefs found only in this area. Coral reefs are not found along the west coast of North America and South America as well as the west coast of Africa because of the strong cold coastal currents that reduce water temperatures areas. in these
WHERE IS THE MARINE IGUANA FOUND?
Iguanas are large lizards which are found around the Pacific and in America. Unlike other lizards which eat insects, iguanas eat only fruits, flowers and leaves The marine iguana is the only lizard that spends most of the time in the sea, It is found mostly in the Galapagos Island. Although the iguanas on each island look a little different and are different in sizes yet they all are the same kinds of iguanas. Iguanas develop their colours as they get older – the young are black, while adults can be the combinations of black, green, red or grey, depending on the island on which they live. All iguanas are good swimmers, but the marine iguanas are better swimmers. They swim by moving their bodies from side to side, with their legs held to their sides. Their flattened tails are perfect for swimming. Their claws are longer and sharper than those of land iguanas. So, they can cling tightly to rocks along the shore without being pulled away by the waves. Marine iguanas have blunt noses, which make it easier for them to scrape algae off the rocks with their sharp teeth.
WHERE DOES STARCH COME FROM?
Starch is produced by plants and is found in the form of tiny grains. Leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the air through small pores called stomata. It also has a pigment called chlorophyll, which absorbs sunlight and combines water from the soil and carbon dioxide and tums them into sugar. This sugar is changed by the plants into starch which is stored in the form of small granules in large quantities in stems, leaves, roots, seeds and fruits. Plants store starch so that it may serve as food for the develop- ment of seedlings or new shoots until they can manufacture their own food materials. Both human and animals consume starch because they serve as an important sourced energy Starch is often found in fruits, seeds and in the rhizomes or tubers of plants. It is the major source of energy in these food-items Cornstarch, in particular, is used in cooking for thickening foods such as sauces. In industry, it is used in the manufacture of adhesives, paper and textiles.
WHERE DOES A COCONUT GROW?
The coconut palm is native to southeast Asia and the islands of Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean But now, it has been introduced into all the tropical and sub. tropical parts of the world. It is grown both over the Asian continent (India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia) and in Central and South America (Mexico, Brazil), in Africa, the largest producing countries are Mozambique, Tanzania and Ghana, 90% of the world’s coconut production for exports sources from the Asia Pacific region. The coconut palm is a tall, graceful tree. The coconut palm thrives on sandy, saline soils; it requires abundant sunlight and regular rainfalls over the year. It has a single trunk which is 20-30 m tall. Its bark is smooth and grey, marked by ringed scars. The coconut fruit forms at the base of the palm fronds (leaves). One tree can produce up to 50 coconuts. The coconut palm produces a crown of pinnately com-pound yellow-green leaves called fronds. Each frond reaches 15 to 17 feet in length.
WHERE IS COCOA GROWN?
The birthplace of cocoa is Central America and South America. It is believed that Christopher Columbus discovered cocoa beans in Europe in 1502. The cocoa seeds were commercially cultivated first in 11879, in Ghana. Even today, Ghana is the largest producer of cocoa. Equatorial regions are most appropriate for growing cocoa trees which need continuous moisture. Regions having a rainfall of 50-100 mm are most suitable for these plants. A cocoa tree grows to a height of about 8 metres. Twice a year, small, star-like pink and yellow flowers bloom. After a certain interval of time, flowers gro into fruits or pods of the shapes of eggs, which are around 6-10 inche long and 3-4 inches thick. These pods take around six months mature, Chocolate is made grinding the kernels of cocoa beans ! a paste called chocolate liquor. The liquor is hardened in moulds to mo chocolate. Cooking chocolate is bite whereas eating chocolate has sug? and milk added to it.
WHERE DO SPICES COME FROM?
Spices are the buds, borks, roots, borries and aromatic seeds that are harvested for use in llavouring food items during cooking, Most spices are grown in the tropical regions of the world, with some thriving in the cool misty highlands. The Phoenicians traded in spices about 2,500 years ago. The great voyages and explorations of Columbus in the 1400s were mainly to find woys to reach the source of spices in southeast Asia. Spices made from frogrant tropical plants have long been used to Havour food, Cinnamon is the inner bark of a laurel tree native to Sri Lanka, Pepper comes from the fruil or seeds of a tropical climbing shrub which originally grew on the western coast of India. The pepper berries are green at first. Then, they become yellow. At last, they turn red. After they hove turned red, they are plucked and spread out to dry in the sun, When dried, they turn black and are ground. Saffron is the yellow stigma of the purple saffron crocus. It is the costliest of all spices. It takes 1,70,000 flowers to make just 1 kg of saffron
WHERE WAS TEA DISCOVERED?
was in the South West part of China that Chinese lewe thound. According to one popular Chinese legend, Shennong, the legendary Emperor of China, inventor of agriculture and Chinese medicine, was drinking a bowl of boiling water some time around 2737 BC. The wind blew and a few leaves from a nearby tree fell Into his water and began to change its Blour. Tha ever inquisitive and curious monarch look a sip of the brew and was pleasantly surprised by its flavour. Major teo growing regions of the world are India, China, Sri Lanka, Japan, Kenya, Turkey Indonesia, Vietnam, Argentina, Tanzania, Taiwan, Malawi and Zimbabwe. Tea grows best in trepice and sub-tropical climates with som warm days and moist, cool nights world’s finest teas are grown altitudes between 3,000 and 600 feet. Tea requires, at least, 50 inches rainfall a year, it prefers acidico Only the top 1-2 inches high buck on leaves of a mature tea plant picked. These buds and leaves called flushes. A plant growse flush every seven to ten days during growing season.
WHERE IS THE SECRETARY BIRD FOUND?
The secretary bird is a bird of prey. Unlike other raptors, it has long legs, wings and a tail. The bird gets its name from its crest of long feathers that look like the quill pens which the 19th- century office workers used to tuck behind their ears. The secretary bird is found only in Africa (south of the Sahara desert.) Its preferred habitat is open grass plains and steppes. The bird is basically dove-grey in colour, with black on the wings, thighs and elongated central tail feathers. The short, down-curved bill is backed by an area of bare, red and yellow skin. The secretary bird stands three feet high. It is renowned for its ability to catch snakes, but it probably does not catch as many snakes as might be imagined. It will also catches and eats virtually anything which is not too big to swallow, such as lizards, insects and small mammals. It usually chases its prey along the ground. Once it has catches its prey, it repeatedly attacks the head of its prey with its short, sharp rear talon. Secretary birds are almost completely silent birds, except for rare croaking sounds they utter while displaying.
WHERE WOULD YOU FIND THE TRAVELLER’S TREE?
Ravenala madagascariensis, also known as the traveller’s tres traveller’s palm, is a tropical tree from the same family as the birds of paradise. It is native to the island of Modagascar. The plant is shaped like a huge fan made of feathers. It can grow up to 30# 60 H (10 m to 20 m) tall. The leaves of the traveller’s tree are symetrically grouped and give the tree the shape of a hand fan. Leaves can be up to 10 h (3. long. The traveller’s tree grows best in well-drained and moist grounds Edible seeds are produced in fruit capsules after finy, white summer plooms. According to some beliefs, this plant produces water at the base of its leaves and is thus valuable to a traveller. But actually , the tree does not produce water. It is rain which has been trapped in the sheaths that cover the ravenala’s leaves. The water can be obtained by pricking the stems of the leaves and has been used for drinking in times of scarcity
WHERE WAS THE GINGER PLANT FIRST GROWN?
Ginger is commonly used as a cooking spice throughout the world. The ginger plant has a long history of cultivation. It is known to have originated in China and then spread to India, southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean Nowadays, it is cultivated all over tropical and sub-tropical Asia, Fifty per cent of the world’s harvest is produced in India. The other major producers in the world include Brazil, Jamaica and Nigeria. A ginger plant can grow to about 1 m tall. The upright shoots sprout from the rhizome at the base of the plant. Rhizomes are knobbly and fleshy, covered in ring-like scars. This is the important part for food and medicine. Although the rhizomes grow underground yet they are swollen stems, not roots. Young ginger rhizomes are juicys and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar as snacks or just cooked as ingredients in many dishes. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes and Chinese cuisines to flavour dishes. Ginger contains up to three per cent of an essential oil that gives it fragrance.
WHERE IS THE WORLD’S BIGGEST CRAB FOUND?
Crabs are decapods. They are ten-legged omnivores, but the from pair of legs are specialised with enlarged claws. So, they are common described as eight-legged creatures. Crabs vary in sizes from the pea crab only a few millimetres wide, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg-span of up to 4 m. The Japanese spider crab is the largest known arthropod. The size of its body is 37 cm and its weight is up to 20 kg. A crab’s natural habitat is on the bottom of the Pacific Ocean around Japan. It often lives on the seabed at the depths of 150 to 800 m, but is found most prominently in the depths of 200 to 300 m. In spring, it can often be found laying eggs in waters as shallow as 50 m. It has an orange body, but it has white spots on its thin legs. The width of its oval-shaped and vertically rounded shell can reach up to 30 cm, and can be up to 40 cm long. Its compound eyes are situated on the front. Its two thorns stick out between them. It feeds on dead animals and shellfish. It is believed to have a lite expectancy of up to 100 years.